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General => General Board => Topic started by: lionger on January 15, 2007, 06:35:06 PM

Title: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 15, 2007, 06:35:06 PM
Lake Chad fishermen pack up their nets

By Senan Murray
BBC News website, Lake Chad 


Muhammadu Bello and his nine children used to depend on Lake Chad for their livelihoods.

But the former fisherman became a farmer as the waters vanished eastwards from the shores of his village in north-east Nigeria.

Experts are warning that the lake, which was once Africa's third largest inland water body, could shrink to a mere pond in two decades.

A recent study by Nasa and the German Aerospace Centre blames global warming and human activity for Africa's disappearing water.

Cheating

"Africa is being cheated again by the industrialised West," says Jacob Nyanganji of Nigeria's University of Maiduguri.

"Africa does not produce any significant amount of greenhouse gases, but it's our lakes and rivers that are drying up. America has refused to ratify Kyoto and it is our lakes that are drying up."
Villagers in Nigeria's semi-arid border region with Chad, Niger and Cameroon understand full well the consequences of what is happening.

"I don't know what global warming is, but what I do know is that this lake is dying and we are all dying with it," says Mr Bello.

"Some 27 years ago when I started fishing on the lake, we used to catch fish as large as a man.

"But now this is all the fishermen bring in after a whole night of fishing," he says pointing at tiny catfish piled on the ground in Doron Baga's once-famous fish market.

His family now farm on rich, dark loamy soil that was once part of the lake - growing onions, peppers, tomatoes and maize.



 There are constant arguments over territory between fishermen
Fisherman Muhammad Sanusi 

"This entire area used to be covered with water when I first came here," Mr Bello says with a sweep of his hand as we left the village by car heading towards the lake - a journey which took three hours along a bumpy dusty trail.

As recently as 1966, Lake Chad, which sits between Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon and Niger, was a huge expanse of water that the locals fondly referred to as an "ocean".

The Central African Republic's Logone and Chari rivers empty into the lake. But reduced rainfall and damming of the rivers means that only half of the water now gets to the lake.

The Komadougou-Yobe River in far north-eastern Nigeria which also feeds the lake now flows only during the rainy season.

Clashes

"I tell you even animals and birds have been dying around here. There are fewer of them now," says Musa Niger, a fisherman in Duguri, an island village in the middle of the lake.



Another Duguri resident, Umaru Mustapha cuts in. He used to earn $100 a day, but now earns about $6.

"Some of our colleagues are tired of this difficult life and have turned to farming," he says.

"I cannot do this as there are hardly any rains these days and for dry season farming you have to depend on the lake water which is too much hassle," he says.

At the lake bank, workers offload heavy parcels of smoked catfish from locally made boats fitted with outboard engines.

The fish is brought in from the Chadian side of the lake where most of the water is to be found.

Nigerian fishermen who have chased the receding lake to Chadian and Cameroonian territories complain of harassment by tax officials and occasional clashes with locals.


"There are constant arguments over territory between fishermen," says Muhammad Sanusi, a fisherman in Dogon Fili, another village which sprang up in the middle of the drying lake less than 15 years ago.
"It's difficult to determine boundaries on water, yet the gendarmes [from Cameroon and Chad] always come after us and seize our fishing nets and traps and we have to pay heavily to get them back."

He says the arguments often lead to violence among the 30m-strong shoreline communities who are competing for access to water and pasture and some villagers now opt to seek employment in Maiduguri, capital of Nigeria's north-eastern Borno State.

'Global heritage'

For the politicians, there is no arguing with the figures: 40 years ago, the lake was 25,000 sq km and the daily fish catch was some 230,000 tonnes; now it is 500 sq km with a catch of barely 50,000 tonnes.

The Sahara Desert in the north is speeding towards the lake.

"Lake Chad is a global heritage and now a disaster waiting to happen," speaker of Nigeria's House of Representatives said at a recent meeting to discuss ways to save the disappearing lake.


Aminu Bello Masari told the meeting that "already pastoralists have been forced out of the lake to move their herds to the wetter south which has already caused conflicts between herders and farmers".

A plan to channel water from Oubangi River in the Central African Republic to Lake Chad is yet to begin due to lack of funding.

A feasibility study is still being discussed, after which the countries involved hope to approach international donors for funding.

But as livelihoods are destroyed and the desert heads ever southwards, time is of the essence for the planners.




Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 15, 2007, 06:38:11 PM
(http://news.bbc.co.uk/nol/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/05/sci_nat_enl_1130783537/img/1.jpg)
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 15, 2007, 07:05:03 PM
Lake Chad fishermen pack up their nets



"Africa is being cheated again by the industrialised West," says Jacob Nyanganji of Nigeria's University of Maiduguri.
"Africa does not produce any significant amount of greenhouse gases, but it's our lakes and rivers that are drying up. America has refused to ratify Kyoto and it is our lakes that are drying up."




He says the arguments often lead to violence among the 30m-strong shoreline communities who are competing for access to water and pasture and some villagers now opt to seek employment in Maiduguri, capital of Nigeria's north-eastern Borno State.

Aha!!! Vindicated!!!
When I noted in the saddam executed thread that Bush was guilty of genocide, and his actions unlike Saddam's affect millions, U (Lionger) wrote that


"This is the most amazing charge of all. Bush is guilty of genocide because he refused to ratify the Kyoto protocol? That's quite a stretch!"

Well its not such a stretch after all then is it? What did Jacob Nyanganji say up there?? ... quite!! So refusing to ratify the Kyoto agreement is affecting some 30 million ppl who are one way or another dependent on lake Chad hey??? Lol the 'whatever' has come home to roost!!!

Anyway thanks for bringing up this topic about L. Chad, its a topic after my own heart. I am truly interested in it.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 16, 2007, 02:30:10 PM
Husnna, I have a hard time understanding your logic here. You accuse Prez Bush of genocide becuase a Nigerian professor of geography at the University of Maiduguri thinks so? Duhh! Ok, in the pacific north west, several people are dead especially in Oklahoma and sorrounding areas because of severe snow storm. Livestock is at risk because the most of the farmlands are iced ove. Cattles, mules, etc are in danger because they cannot feed on the shrubs and grass. As an alternative, hay is being dropped on farms so the livestock don't die from starvation. Are you going to blame bush for this also?

Bush has admitted several times that global warming is real. You Husnna are totally ignorant of facts. World leading environmentalists will not go as far as accusing Bush of genocide due to the shrinking lake chad. That's just absurd. The effects of global warming are universal and not just limited to lake Chad or Africa. The US is committed to a 5% CO 2 emissions reduction. Canada, a worse offender is committed to a 6% reduction. Three other countries have refused to ratify this treaty. They are, Australia, Monaco and Liechtenstein. I don't see you accusing these nations of genocide.

The question I would like to ask you however is this, do Nigerians in Nigeria contribute to environmental pollution? I was in Lagos last summer, and I am telling you, the pollution in the environment is unreal. Pollution from vehicles alone, personal and commercial, is enough to dry up river Niger, river Benue, River in Rivers State and then Lake Chad.  What has the Nigerian government done to reduce environmental pollution in Nigeria? The pollution Nigeria emits is probably killing more people each year than other factors but no one knows because nothing works anyway, and there's no way of tracking any atmospheric changes that affect people or the environment.

If we look at oil plants in Nigeria, you'll notice vertical drones where gas in form of burning fire emits contineously into the atmosphere. This has been the case in all the plants since their contruction. Can you quantity the impact of that after several decades of environmental irresponsibility that we, not the west, create in our own society.

The interesting thing is that the alarm about environmental degradation was brought to international limelight by Western scientist and green advocates. SomeAfrican professors now jump on the band wagon and pretend like they made these discoveries from the onset.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 16, 2007, 02:43:04 PM
Husnna, here is an article for your consumption. I found it at this website:
http://medilinkz.org/news/news2.asp?NewsID=294



NIGERIA: Focus on the environmental impact of gas flaring - Monday, November 12, 2001 


LAGOS, 12 November (IRIN) - The most outstanding sight in the tiny fishing village of Batan in southern Nigeria, is a 10-metre-high flame that burns continuously from a vertical pipe at the edge of one of the many facilities the Shell oil company has in the Niger Delta.

The flame pales in bright sunlight, but at night its orange glow dominates the village and surrounding skies over a 15-kilometre radius. It is fed by the natural gas given off during the production of crude oil, and which is burnt away as waste.

"Batan has known no darkness since Shell set up in the place more than 10 years ago," Dan Orubebe, a Niger Delta activist and community member, told IRIN in Lagos. "The surrounding vegetation has withered while the health of the inhabitants has deteriorated."

More than a thousand such flares burn in and off the Niger Delta, a 70,000-sq.km region that produces much of Nigeria's oil, and where natural gas has been going up in flames ever since oil production began 40 years ago in the West African country. Each day up to 2.7 billion cubic feet - about 70 percent - of the gas released during oil production is burned off
in Nigeria. This sends huge volumes of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide and methane, into the atmosphere, while sulphur dioxide emissions come back to the Delta as acid rain. Inhabitants of the region complain of health problems - mainly respiratory - as well as damage to wildlife, homes and vegetation.

Known reserves of natural gas in Nigeria are estimated at over 180 trillion cubic feet, which is enough, some experts say, to power the rest of Africa for centuries. Potential reserves are estimated at between 45 trillion and 100 trillion cubic feet. However, in the past four decades alone, the country's oilfields have produced about 23 trillion cubic feet of
gas, most of which has been flared.

Over the years, oil companies operating in Nigeria, which include Shell, Exxon-Mobil, Chevron, Totalfina-Elf, Agip and Texaco, have invoked several factors for not exploiting the gas. These include lack of local and regional demand, absence of infrastructure for distribution, and the high cost of investments required to take the gas to international markets.

Initially, the government's effort to tackle the problem of flaring was limited to a token tax of about 15 US cents per 1,000 cubic feet of gas flared - too light to serve as a deterrent - and the practice continued.

"Current statistics indicate that Nigeria accounts for about 19 percent of the total amount of gas flared globally," Minister of State for Environment Ime Okopido told a recent seminar in Lagos. "Nigeria, as a nation, recognises the realities of large-scale flaring of natural gas and the associated impacts."


Indeed, the Niger Delta, as a coastal area, is among the places most likely to become vulnerable to the effects of global warming. Of particular concern, Okopido said, is the likely impact of rising sea levels, such as tidal waves and flooding.

In the past decade, efforts have been multiplied in Nigeria to cut back on flaring and, eventually, end the practice altogether. A major event in this regard was the start of natural gas exports in October 1999 from a US-$3.8-billion Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) plant at Bonny Island on the Atlantic coast. The NLNG company, formed in the early 1990s,
is a joint venture involving Nigeria (49 percent), Shell (25.6 percent) Totalfina-Elf (15 percent), and Agip (10.4 percent).

Exxon-Mobil has its own natural gas liquids project which, the company says, is now using 70 percent of the natural gas obtained in its oilfields. Chevron has its Escravos Gas Project, which was the first to begin gas exports in 1997, and is currently undergoing expansion.

Chevron, Shell and the state-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation are involved in the West African Gas Pipeline project with the governments of Benin, Ghana and Togo. The project aims to develop a regional market for gas.

Most of the companies are also in the process of setting up power plants that will use gas.

With all these projects in the works, both Nigerian and oil company officials expressed the hope in 1998 that gas flaring would end by 2008. However, on assuming office in 1999, President Olusegun Obasanjo called for an end to the practice by 2004.

Agip and Exxon-Mobil already had plans to end flaring by 2004, while the target year for Totalfina-Elf and Chevron was 2005. However Shell, which produces about half of Nigeria's oil output, has more extensive operations, and felt more comfortable with a 2008 deadline given the huge costs the operation entailed.

"By 2008, all Shell flow-stations and processing facilities will be
provided with equipment to gather and harness their gas," said David Balogun, one of the managers responsible for Shell Nigeria's gas projects, "and Shell and its customers will be able to utilise this gas under normal operating conditions".

Vice President Atiku Abubakar announced in late October that the new deadline for ending all gas flares in the oil region would be 2008. Critics have denounced the change as evidence that Shell is shaping the government's energy policy.

But Chima Okeke, an oil industry expert, argues that the difference of four years is largely academic. "Considering that the flares will be at their most minimal in the last four years, probably less than 15 percent of total gas produced, I don't think it matters too much," he told IRIN. "We should just hope that irreversible damage was not done to the environment during the preceding 45 years of the flares."
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 16, 2007, 05:17:37 PM
Hehehe oh Husnaa,

When I read and posted this article I certainly noted that Nyanganji echoed your sentiments, and I suspected that you would jump on it - and you have readily obliged  :D. I will concede that this argument makes much better contextual sense on a thread like this rather than a thread on Saddam Hussein's execution; however it still lacks real susbtance IMHO.

Firstly, most experts agree - even as the BBC article noted - that Lake Chad's disappearance is a result of climate change as well as other factors - most notably, human abuse. Two years ago, Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA) released a report on a regional assessment of the Lake Chad. Funny enough, this report placed the blame primarily on freshwater shortage caused by irrigation projects and several reservior dams constructed about 40 years ago. In addition to climate change, the report also fingered pollution and overfishing, albeit as secondary causes. So I really wonder why Mr. Nyanganji found it fit to pinpoint global warming only as the major cause of the lake's shrinkage. Perhaps, seeing that he was being interviewed by the BBC which is a Western media outlet, he decided to have a go at the West. But this ignores the fact that the water resources of the lake were being used at an unsustainable level for 4 decades by the adjacent communities and governments.

Secondly, criticising the U.S. for not ratifying the Kyoto protocol is once again a futile attempt at blame-shifting (as already shown from the above). Moreover, this argument is based on ignorance. Just because the U.S. refused to ratify the accord does not mean that it is not doing anything. In fact, it is doing better than other Kyoto signatories at reducing emmissions. Ete took the words out of my mouth when he compared the U.S.' performance with Canada's woeful, almost non-existent attempt. The previous Liberal government that ratified the Protocol took swipes at the U.S. for not doing so; yet they did precious little themselves. Fastforward to the present, and Canada is about 35% off its target and has declared that it would not be able to meet its obligations under Kyoto. Moreover, it has expressed interest in participating in the U.S.-sponsored AP6 agreement; thus adopting a rather contrarian stance. The U.S. has made commitments to emmission reduction and is keeping them. Nyanganji's argument is purely of sentimental value and precious little else.

Let's even consider the hypothetical scenario that Bush, on coming into office in 2001, immediately summitted the Kyoto Protocol to the Senate for ratification, got it ratified, and kept up with the commitment. Do you really think that within the space of six years that the U.S. solely would make a real difference in Lake Chad? This is climate change we're talking about that affects all parts of the globe. And its not like Lake Chad disappeared over the past year. By the late 80s the Lake had already shrunk to nearly half its size; for all his incompetence Bush was nowhere near the scene of influence. So in light of all this, how can Bush possibly be deemed guilty of genocide?

The last point I'd like to make is that as far back as 1992 leading experts identified the primary causes of the Lake Chad shrinkage (i.e. freshwater overuse) and made recommendations in an extensive report. What did the governments of the Lake Chad Basin (i.e. Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroun) do with these recommendations? Did they do anything? Why blame the West for global warming whereas we ourselves did not do our bit in curbing the impending disaster? Therefore, Nyanganji's stance remains purely sentimental and devoid of real substance.

My two cents.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 16, 2007, 05:23:58 PM
Hey admin,

Is there a way of increasing the image size? Excuse my ignorance  ???
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 16, 2007, 06:15:15 PM
Lionger, talking of environmental pollution, do we really have any moral standing in accusing others?
I mean I was in Nigeria just last year (lagos in particular) and believe me, for the first hour or so, it was difficult to breath. It was even worse leaving the airport and travelling south bound towards Suru-Lere via ikorodu road/western Avenue.  Almost every vehicle on the road emits very thick dark smoke. The bigger commercial buses (Molue) and eighteen wheelers are worse. This happens 24/7 365 days a year. Can you imagine the health risk this posses? You can't be too surprised when you inquire about someone, and the response you get is......"Ah He/she died mysteriously last year". or "Ah evil people with their devilish charms killed him/her". Most of those deaths are medical but related to different factors amongst which are environmental hazards.

Lionger, have you ever passed through Iddo heading to Lagos Island metropolis? That Iddo market/motor park area is perhaps the most stinking community on earth. There is lagoon right there, and at any given time, you'll find some of Alkani's folks squating on the darn bridge and popping into the lagoon. That practices has been going on for decades. There is so much crap in that lagoon to the point that the marine life is totally extinct. That lagoon contains so much human feaces to the point that the entire community stinks dangerously. But guess what, there is an open market right there where meat, fish, and other fresh produce are sold.

Should this worry people? Is there an health risk here?
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 16, 2007, 06:37:07 PM
Sannu Malam Ete, you now talk well, forget about global warming by the west, what is our government doing to resusicitate this situation? I come from where we directly benefit from the Lake Chad (Borno). OUr Government is doing nothing to address the issue, infact the issue of lake chad is never a table issue for my government.

Please, lets do something!
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: guest33 on January 16, 2007, 07:01:48 PM
Lake Chad fishermen pack up their nets

By Senan Murray
BBC News website, Lake Chad 

Cheating

"Africa is being cheated again by the industrialised West," says Jacob Nyanganji of Nigeria's University of Maiduguri.

"Africa does not produce any significant amount of greenhouse gases, but it's our lakes and rivers that are drying up. America has refused to ratify Kyoto and it is our lakes that are drying up."
Villagers in Nigeria's semi-arid border region with Chad, Niger and Cameroon understand full well the consequences of what is happening.



The Central African Republic's Logone and Chari rivers empty into the lake. But reduced rainfall and damming of the rivers means that only half of the water now gets to the lake.

The Komadougou-Yobe River in far north-eastern Nigeria which also feeds the lake now flows only during the rainy season.



People only see what they wish to see
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 16, 2007, 07:16:44 PM
Ete, I haven't been in Lagos for quite a while now, but I remember that it was a very, very dirty and filthy place. Even the good places like Victoria Island are now a sad sight. As per pollution, this is the malady that most developing countries face. However,we have done nothing about it so as you say we really don't have the right to criticise others. The GIWA report I mentioned before warned that environmental pollution was going to have a more significant effect in the future, so we better get our act together soon.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 17, 2007, 04:38:50 PM
(http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/Images/landsat_chad.jpg)
Click link below for larger image
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Newsroom/NewImages/Images/landsat_chad.jpg

Here's another image from NASA showing Lake Chad's decline over the years. Notice that the 1973-87 time period saw the biggest decrease in lake size.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 17, 2007, 05:03:16 PM
My senior, i have seen the pix, but i dont understand anything there, can you please explain to me.  Sorry dont mind me, i have never studied geography
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 17, 2007, 06:10:45 PM
My senior, i have seen the pix, but i dont understand anything there, can you please explain to me.  Sorry dont mind me, i have never studied geography

Ce.. an u from borno all the way from the land of lake chad??? lol.  I will give u a little 'KNOW YR LAKE CHAD' briefing.
You are looking down on the lake from a bird's eye view of it. The cup like part of the lake represents the southern part of it, and the elongated end is the northern part of the lake. Because there is so little water, it is very swampy with lots of reed islands that is why u have the overall green color. The dark blue in the middle  of the cupshape is the region of permanently open water, where the Chari enters the lake. The  thin diagonal strip on the bottom right hand side of the largest pic is the Chari river as it enters the lake. The dark blue at the top left side of the pic is residual moisture/water from the annual flooding of the lake.
The first little picture on the left is how the lake was in 1973. The dark blueish area represents the extent of water at the time, almost the whole lake basin. The middle little picture is the lake some 14 yrs later. The northern end of the lake had completely dried out by then, even the vegetation was scarce as u can see from its absence in the northern part of the basin. Only the southern end had any water and that was because of being fed by the Chari, whose volumes had fallen so that there wasnt sufficient in coming water to cause the annual circulation. There were other factors as well, but we wont go into those. By 1997, a shift in rainfall patterns at source (the central African republic) improved the drainage system of the Chari therefore the volume of water entering  the lake rose as well so that water was able to move towards the northern part of the lake and therefore replenish some parts and give rise to the swampy conditions again. The vegetation in the smaller pics is shown as red bcos the pics were acquired in the visible to near infra red region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The larger pic is a true color image however.
The Nigerian part of the lake is the part extending from just before the point where the Komadugu Yobe river enters the lake (that is at the top left hand side of the big pic)coming down to where the cup shape indents inwards, slightly (that is where the town of Baga Kukawa local govt is)and comes downwards (bottom centre of the large pic) and goes upwards slightly some miles inwards,and then we are in Cameroon. The other side of the cup shape of the lake is in the Lac Prefecture in Chad the country.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 17, 2007, 06:31:54 PM
Aunty Husna kenan, jack of all, thank you very much, it is now that i can see the picture with idon basira, but before it looks as if it is child's colouring.  Thank you.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: lionger on January 18, 2007, 06:01:04 PM
Sorry Dan Borno, I should have put some notations alongside the picture. Thankfully 'Aunty Husnaa' has obliged. Husnaa, I bow oh! That piece of yours was quite superb. I know we disagree on many issues, but I find your electic grasp of diff. fields of knowledge very impressive.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 18, 2007, 08:05:05 PM
No kidding Lionger, me too. Her description of the images was expertly done like a true geographer.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 18, 2007, 08:13:38 PM
But what's this"

Husnna's responde to Ete;
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Ete,
I am always skeptical whenever I get a commendation from you. I have been wondering if to accept your kind remarks in good faith or treat it with suspicion. Please Ete, help me out. Were you serious, or were you up to one of your tricks? I find it difficult to agree with you given your past anti islamic attitude (hellooooooooo, this is about Lake Chad)
So you see Ete, you are always siding with the west. Even when you don't side with them, in my mind you are still siding with them, so I am always suspicious.

Thanks.
Husnna!
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 18, 2007, 08:36:43 PM
 I'm speechless(http://i66.photobucket.com/albums/h276/DianneOnly/blink.gif)
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 18, 2007, 08:41:50 PM
Ha Ete, you don start abi? pulling my Aunty's leg, be careful before I hire someone to descend on you.
Lake Chad is Shrinking, abi you don forget the topic, you know i am very close to the Lake.

Let me tell you something, even the banda fish (smoked) that is being brought from that corner has started to disappear.  Before, 10 - 15 years ago, the fish market (Tashan Baga) is just 100 meters from my house, i use to buy a carton of smoked fish for only N500.00, but now (forget about the inflation), a carton of smoked fish has risen to N5,000.00.  The worst of all, they are all gamba fish, i dont think they even contain the minerals they used to have before.

The Fish market is one of the biggest fish market in Africa, (I reliably gathered that the fish is the best in Africa) but now, go see the market.  Hardly, you see a full load of truck going south, as against before, where about 5 - 10 trucks of loaded banda fish trooping down south.

One disgusting issue is that neither my State Government (Borno) nor any neighbouring benefitting state is trying to address this issue.  Could you believe me that over 15 - 25 thousand people are depending on this business of fishing?

My people, you need to go there and see wonders for your eyes, the first time I was on this Lake, to Allah who created me, i didnt believe i am in Nigeria, because we drove on the boat non-stop for 3 hours on the lake at a minimum speed of 90 - 100 kmph.

Another issue I will like you to note is that, these guys fishing on this lake, spend a whole six month without coming out of the water, they dont even come to the river bank.  After they have finished catching the fish, they will stay very far from the river bank, special agents will now drive their boat to about 5 kilometers, it is on top of that water that the fish will be bought by the agents, while the retailers are waiting by the river bank.

So on and so on, the rest untill I host you in Borno, I am tire of writing.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 19, 2007, 03:36:57 PM
Dan Borno, so you like fish like this fa? Well, I am an angler myself and I fish quite a bit. There is a canal the runs behind my backyard and into a big lake. Most of my neighbors have pantoon or bass fishing boats, and so we often go out to the lake to fish for bass or trout. Unlike you Dan Borno, I am not so crazy about smoked fish. I usually fillet the fish and put it on a grill. Season it with All Purpose seasoning, onion powder, black pepper, sea salt, peppercorn medly and garlic. Serve it with salad or boiled potatoes with spices, and Dang!!!!!! you 'll bite your fingers. Much better and healthier than cooking all that fish in soup or frying it in oil.

I know you are talking about large scale commercial fishing, and not recreational like I do. But even then, there are rules we have to go by because of state and federal conservation laws. If you fish indescriminately, you can effectively reduce the fish population in an area. Same goes for hunting. The laws requires ordinary recreational anglers like myself to have fishing licenses for either fresh water or salt water. I have both because I'm either usually at the lake or a coastline town with a beach. The other thing is there are further regulations regarding size of fish you can catch. The fish you catch no matter how big must meet the required length established by law before you can keep it. So what we do mostly is keep a measuring chart, and if the fish I catch for instance does not measure, I release it back into the water. Most people do the same, and this helps conservation or else, there will be no fish left in most creeks or ponds.

Similar laws apply to commercial fishing. Fishing industry is seriously regulated. It is even worse for Crab fishermen because they have a month or so in six months to go out to sea to cast their pods for giant crabs, and it is a demanding job. It pays well though if you make it back in one piece. So there are rules that need to be followed and enforced. When fishing trawleys are out in the sea, the coast guard routinely board the boats to either do a full inspection of the boat and check to see that all the papers, permits, etc are in order. They also check to make sure the crew is in compliance of applicable fishing laws. Any violation, and the penalty can be really stiff.

You made a point that some fishing vessels camp out at sea for weeks and even engage in commerce right there at sea rather than return to port. That cannot be good for business. Any successful fishing community needs to have a thriving and burstling port or marina. The marina needs to be busy with both retail and whole buyers making deals, buying, and moving fish here and there. This is what helps the economy of that port town thrive. But when business transaction are now moved away from the port, and most of the fish is sold to rackets at sea, what is left when the vessel finally berths at port? Nothing but diminished activity. This hurts business, and this is where a responsible government steps in so the local economy does not crumble because of illegal practises.

The other thing i want to point (and I see this a lot here) out is that it would make better sense if communities began fish farm businesses. This will require hiring marine experts and start up cost may be significant, but it is the right thing to do. Fish farming is a smart conservative idea. Indivduals like you Dan Borno can do this if you live out in the country and have some land by your home. In this case, you will have a fish pond. It could be cold or warm water pond. You can then stock this pond with fishinglings. Warmwater species of fish have an advantage over trout in the farm pond situation because they can reproduce. I would recommend largemouth bass/ bluegill combination or bass/ golden shiner combination. Some fishes like catfish and bullheads are bottom feeders and can over populate. They can also muddy your pond, but it all comes down to your preference.

I think this is an alternative to the shrinking marine life in your area. Dan Borno, when you invite me to Borno, I would take my fishing gadgets along. Who knows, Nigerian fishes may be too smart bite our bait. So, when you have time invite me, and we can go take a second look at this situation. Don't invite Husnna please. she may be causing confusion there and the people may kick us out of the market for nothing.  ;D
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 19, 2007, 05:27:52 PM
 ;D
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 19, 2007, 10:58:55 PM
Don't invite Husnna please. she may be causing confusion there and the people may kick us out of the market for nothing.  ;D

Ahem..(Clearing throat) I heard that!!!.(http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v411/hells/nelle/clever6613.gif)
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: NewEte on January 21, 2007, 04:40:58 AM
I thought this Dan Borno was interested in fishing. He had no comment at all about my post on fishing. Now, I am disappointed. I thought I found someone here that shares a passion in fishing. Dan Borno, you are the one that adviced me to discuss other things except religious issues. I took your advice and did that, and what was your response? Nothing! Thank you Sir.
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 21, 2007, 08:16:01 PM
Lol Ete!! Your kind of fishing is a leisurely activity. I dont think its quite the same as what happens on the lake Chad. In  any case, I dont think Dan Borno is a fisherman. He may have been on the lake and the fishmarket and bought the fish, but that didnt make it his livelihood.

The sort of fishing that goes on is hardly the type that can be described as a hobby. Many do it for monetary gains. Large fishing nets  and some kind of baskets  called dumba (i think) are  used. The baskets are placed upside down in rows inside the water and used to trap the fish. There are, or used to be many types of fish caught. But the ones I know are the mudfish or catfish (I believe) and tilapia. The fish need to be smoked as a preservative measure against spoiling as the catch has to be exported out of the region. A lot of ppl use corn cobs as fuel.  Infact corn cobs are the main fuel source in some of these villages. However, some ppl have been known to use dried dung  to smoke the fish.

Fishing in the Nigerian part of the lake has stopped yielding significant dividends. The fish population is so depleted and at the same time the fish themselves are small. Nevertheless the fishermen net them in like that. But there is a law against catching young fish   and fines are usually imposed on the fishermen caught fishing illegally like that. But of course hardly anyone is ever caught. The Cameroonian part of the lake is more lucrative and many of the fish cargo that eventually finds its way to the Nigerian markets comes from Cameroon.

Life on the lake is very tough. There are sand dune islands which have become exposed when the lake level dropped. These dune islands have fertile soils at the interface of dune and water. Farmers and fisher men have settled on these islands. The fishermen fish   during the flooding season. When the flood receeds in the dry season, the farmers cultivate the extremely fertile soils. Some famous dune islands are Darak, which was in the news a lot last year (or the year before last), as it was one of the islands handed over to Cameroon. (Not part of the bakkassi peninsular). Another one is Duguri which I think is still a part of Nigeria. Many ppl from diverse ethnic backgrounds have made these islands their homes and  live amicably with each other. As a result, thriving commercial hubs have sprung up in these island villages.

In the preceding years, the military presence in these islands was palpable. Soldiers were a daily part of life. I remember being told I should hide my camera from them and on being stopped by one soldier, our stupid guide when asked what our bizness there was said, oh they are only taking pictures!! (dumbass lol!!)
 

Mosquitoes are what make life almost unbearable in these islands. On average, there must be at least 100 mosquitoes per square inch of skin!! I spent two days on a very tiny island there. So tiny you'd miss it on a map and I must have slapped myself silly during the two days I was there. It was an experience which  I am still undecided about the repeat of... but who knows?
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: sdanyaro on January 21, 2007, 09:23:44 PM
HUSNAA what a beautiful exposť on the great Lake Chad, and this brings back memories for me about the lake and the whole area as I spent a whole year in New Marte as a then young Soil Scientist working with the Lake Chad Basin Authority.

Quote
Mosquitoes are what make life almost unbearable...
Yes you can say that again... it was common at that time in that place that Mosquitoes can kill livestock such as horses and donkeys overnight just by the shear numbers of the Mosquitoes that can bite the skin inside the nostrils on these animals and that was why it was very common to see very large huts build that housed not only people but their livestock overnight as well.

Another characteristics of the area, was the Clay soil and a very short raining season. Clay soils hold water for an extended period of time. You will also notice that not much is grown during the rainy period but they grow a dwarf variety of sorghum that takes advantage of the residual moisture from the clay soils...

Oh... Scorpions were also very plentiful...
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: HUSNAA on January 22, 2007, 06:52:47 AM
I've been to Marte also. Old Marte, where the local govt hq is. The mention of that name just brings back wonderful memories for me especially of the characters I have met there. Lol I had a great time there, so full of adventure. Who can forget the clays especially in the rainy season. We were coming back in our jallopy old 4 wheel drive in May of 2004 from the lake shores and driving along the krenowa canal. We had to hurry up and make it before nightfall because our headlamps were a touch and go affair, also  clouds had bunched up in the skies above us and it was threatening to rain and our guide (another one not the dumbass) had told us that if we got caught up in the rain, it would be virtually impossible to move because of the mud. Lo and behold, as we approached the town of Krenowa, it started to rain. But as the road was tarred, we were OK, but we still had a long way to go from where we were stationed at the LG secretariat. We ran into problems the moment we left the tarred road and hit the clay soil.  At first we were able to rev the old jeep and it was skating along the wet silky clay and the driver a colleague of mine was doing all he could to stay on course, while my sister and I, fidgetted in the backseat. It had become pitch black as well and we were not sure if we had a torchlight with us or not. There was a lot of debris strewn on the ground. There were torn off branches of a particular thorn shrub that were lying all over
the road. Every time we came across one, my colleague slowed down, the guide got out and removed the thorn shrub out of the way.
If we dared drive over the shrub, we'd have a flat tyre in seconds. We already had one flat tyre at the back jacked up in the trunk so we didnt have a spare. So we had to be very careful.
One time we slowed down because we had to remove a thorn branch  on a road, on both sides of which were  ditches, (those water carrying canals). Although the road was wide, the clay was so wet and smooth that the tyres had lost all traction and we were skating all over the mud. My greatest fear was that we would eventually end up in one of the canals.  The moment we slowed down, the engine gave out momentarily. When it was eventually started, we found that we had revved ourselves deeply into the mud and the more the engine was revved, the greater the mud churned out and the deeper we sank into it. We all came out and started heaving and pushing. I cant remember how we got out of that jam. We eventually got the jeep out of the mud with the skill of the local guide, then we piled back into it, and drove at a snail's pace while all the time skidding on the mud. There was not a soul or dwelling to be seen for miles and miles. Everything was so eerily quiet which was the norm at night in that part of the world. I think it took us over three hours to cover the journey. By the time we reached the secretariat, it was well past 11:00 PM. I for one never thought we would make it.

Scorpions lol!! You havent mentioned the snakes... I think I saw more snakes there than I have ever seen in my life!
Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: Dan-Borno on January 22, 2007, 08:44:26 AM
Hey, where is Ete (Both the New and Old), Do I have to answer your question? To me Husna Danyaro have done justice to your question, infact they have even go further to tell us of their adventures in that part of my state. 

Believe every things they told you, they are really first class inhabitant of that area.  Even myself that stays in the capital city have never experienced such.

A gaisheku mutan jiya.

Title: Re: Shrinking Lake Chad
Post by: sdanyaro on January 22, 2007, 09:54:56 PM
Husna --- Interesting…
Quote
May of 2004
– My experience with that area was from 1984 to 1985, what about 20 years? Maybe that is how much older I am to you…

Yes whenever it rains, it is usually preceded with big and life fearing activities of supernatural scale. The winds and dust preceding the rains were merciless to anything living or non-living that it finds on that flat lands. I think you were lucky that the vehicle was not toppled over before it rains or maybe because you were driving in and around the canal that shielded you from the fiercest winds. Usually the dust will be so thick that you will not be able to see the palm of your hands in the middle of the day. People and animals around there know very well to take deep and good cover when they sense an impending and approaching rain.

The sense of isolation and loneliness was complete. In those days when I go out running, I could run for 5 miles without seeing anybody. You really do get in touch with your inner self and I think that whole experience help in making me the loner that I have been since then… I am comfortable being alone.

Snakes? Yeah snakes were meat… I tell you the Scorpions were more of a nuisance than the snakes. The scorpions were as plentiful as ants, they were everywhere. In the yard, you could find them in the closets, on the wall of the room, on bed and on the floor. You have to make sure that you check everywhere, your shoes and clothes before you put them on, the bed sheets before you lay down on the bed… one woman did not remember to check her “rigar nono”… well needless to say, she had to be rushed to a health center…

Now the peoples and foods of that area is another topic all together...
… I could write a book… I am surprise that I can still remember these things after about 20 years.

Dan-Borno, you have to check that part of your state and let us know. btw, have you been around Gambaru Ngala, Nguru or Biu parts of Borno or are you a just a Maiduguri kind of guy? I am thinking maybe we should start a nother forum under state, for Borno and Yobe States?