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« on: November 07, 2004, 01:48:02 PM »
                               ALIYU IBRAHIM KHALIL, 234[0] 64 667701,08037024982
                          [NAKSS, BUK CHAPTER]
Praise be to Allah, the Almighty, peace be upon to the noble messenger of Allah, the most documented man on the earth and the final prophet of God Muhammad bin Abdullah. Indeed the topic that I am going to present actually its too big to me as per as educ/history student concern perhaps it suppose to give whether political science students or international relation students but I will try to do my best. me?? democracy is the best form of government in our nation and even world in generally; our country characterised with multi cultures, multi religion and also even in democracy so presidential system is the best.
Greatest Nigerian students whenever we want to talk on democracy in our beloved country so there is need to refer history of colonial era because they were brought democracy to us, western education, western cultures and even some thing so- called civilisation, because to me civilisation means modifying your culture not borrowing from somebody else.
Really of course, the word democracy like so many political terms, include the word  ?politics? itself came from the Greek, its one of the strange paradoxes of history that the concept and theories by which we described political organisation in the modern world were developed in communities that have nothing whatsoever in common with any thing we know or can conceptualised today.indeed Greek had two words for government there was archeir from which we get English ending ?-archy?, as in monarchy, oligachy,and anarchy.
     Secondly, there was ?kratia? from which we get end with  ?-cracy? as in democracy or aristocracy.although they were both terms from system of government there was stubble differences between them. Archy had implication of ?powerful leadership?; which cracy is better rendered by the word oligarchy; meaning government for the few people,carries the implication of the rule impose by the few in the many by force if necessary.? Democracy? the rule of ??demo or peopl?? carries the connotation not only the rule of ? rule of the people by the few but also rule of the people in the interest of the people and with the consent with the people; its indeed, this concept of government by consent and of popular consent lending legitimacy to more important to our understanding of democracy than the mechanises of how the people as a whole can be involve with government in a participatory sense. Nevertheless in the Greek vision of democracy, politics is a natural social activity not sharply separated from the rest of life?Rather politics, life is only can extension of, and harmonious with, oneself indeed, democracy practised by Anthens had various flows the vast majority of adults-including women, slaves, and foreigners- did not quality as a citizens. If modern democracy is founded on the market economy Anthen democracy was a democracy build on slavery; the labour of slave was created the time from citizen elite to precipitate in practice, orators and factions dominated debates.the lack of permanent bureaucracy contributed to ineffective government, leading eventually to the fall of the Anthian republic after defeat of war.
          While since we looked some of the part of democracy?s history so let as look some various definition of democracy. Indeed, various philosophers were wrote a lot concerning the definition of democracy but I mention some, in my humble view.
?Democracy means organ in any society which can claim to comprise the accredited representatives of the people, and can therefore, legitimately make laws for, and supervise the administration in the affairs of the people. It?s also the most effective and acceptable organ which mankind has involved for the promotion @ all times.?
According to American president, politician Abraham Lincoln he defined democracy as ??the government of the people, by he people to the people??
In addition the characteristic of democracy is ??for the people?? in other word, democracy is a form of government which power is vested in the entire people ?? A Rud Hurge  et el  Defined democracy  ??democracy- in it is  literal  and richest sense -refer not to the election  of the rulers by ruled but to the denial of any separation between two?? moreover, according to Mallam Aminu Kano ?? democracy is the establishment  of a government elected by the people  to work for them and defend their interests??
        While indeed, Plato the father of political philosophy, Aristotle both of them have expressed poor opinion of democracy as a form government presumably, as practised in ancient Greek. In the statement, Plato claim that democracy is ?? in every respect weak and unable to do either any great good or any great evil; In the same view in the POLITICS, it describe democracy as the three perverted form of government in contrast to oligarchy and tyranny,? in other word the political philosophers from Plato and Aristotle, through Hegel ,Hobbis and Locre, to Marx, Engels  and leain  would appear to suggest  that all philosophies and theories have certain  basic underlying  principles in common ; the nature of man  and the concept of structure  and origin of state. The basic principles with which we would concern ourselves in this address in the one relating to the nature of man. Various political philosophers have ascribed different attribute to man, Plato thinks that the ordinary man are both selfish rational, and that all men would be viewed on potential tyrants, Aristotle speak of the  ?weakedness of human nature? Locle holds the view that man is not evil but inherently good. For Marx, Engels, human nature depend on the prevailing patterns and condition of production and distribution of wealth. These brief references are enough to show that the nature of man is one of the underlying principles of political philosophy. Indeed surely all political philosophers are agreed that of all human desire, the desire of power is the strongest.
Respecting the human rights which includes right of freedom, speech, gender etc
Election, while the election most to be free and fair without any malpractice like rigging, intimidation or any aspects which is not allowed
Respecting the rules and regulations
Furthermore, let as look some various types of democracies and at the end I would like to concentrate on the first one.
True/direct democracy
Liberal democracy
Semi democracy
As we have noted democracy is a??form of government in which power is vested in the entire people ??. So let as look some history of Greek. In the Greek city states attempts were made, without much success as the writing of Plato and Aristotle clearly depect,to  practice true / direct democracy under which all the the  citizen of a city state assembled to deliberate  and decide on their  affairs. It goes without saying that in modern state which has a large population and has a variety of complex problems, its inadvisable and , in many event impossible  to true democracy.
Nevertheless, the problem which comfront the prognosis of democracy has been this two fashion an institution/institutions which will ensure the participation of the entire people in the affairs of the government losing in operational and functional dispatch and effectiveness. The democracy have found solution to this problems by the device of indirect democracy or representative government under this government there are definite and entrenched rule of the game .in other word, direct democracy ;would envisage  a governmental and legislative  process in which all members of society  are carried  at by manual and unanimous agreement  in fact , such a process  is of necessity an ideal that is not  achievable in the real word. Moreover, the modern democracy is a direct democracy in a form of self-government in which all adult citizen participate in shaping collective decisions, in a context of equality and open deliberation, in a direct democracy, state and society became one.
             Indeed, case of direct democracy is not just that those who are affected by decisions should have say in making them. Its also that the decisions reached by wide deliberation are likely to be better more careful, more rational this is because discussions allow the groups to reconcile different interests, inform members about the issue and draw on a groups expertise, in short debate enable people both to influenced by the group. thus decisions in a direct democracy  are not necessarily or even best riched by voting .the word?s experience with mechanical  instrument of direct democracy  such a referendums is far from  encouraging ,Rather ,the principles of direct democracy is to govern via seeking a consensus which emerges from careful deliberation of the options [Dyzek, 1990]
                    Nevertheless, in direct democracy only adult are eligible to go to polls to cast their votes. But it is well know that all non adult articulate citizens do play a tremendous part in influencing the outcome of the addition, a period of two or five years has been chosen in civilised countries from the tenure of each elected persons. in other word, two/ three years  is not too long  a period to wait  to change the representatives are truly accredited representatives of the people ,and it is essential that elections are conducted in a free and fair atmosphere.
Countries like Western Europe, North America Australia, New Zealand and Japan are usually called liberal democracy, indeed, in liberal democracy people don?t govern themselves Anthes-style; rather, they elect politicians to do the job. The essence of liberal democracy lies not in self-government but in representative government, its direct rather than direct democracy, in addition in liberal democracy subject the popular will go legal or constitutional limits this is to protect individual right for examples freedom og religion. Speech and assembly. Indeed, power even if acquired through fair election, can only be exercised with specified areas inevitable the power is too limited.
Of course, SEM-DEM is totally with the other the system, in a world the countries that practising this system as like Malaysia indeed, in this type the regime combine democratic and authoritarian feature in a manner that provides the foundations from the remarkably stable political order and there is representatives-representatives, indeed,In semi democracy the domination party or individual have to say power is concentrated in a few hands.

I would like to conclude my brief lecture by looking views of some contemporary ulama on relationship between Islam and democracy like sheak mutawalli Al- shawari, who believed that Islamic government is not about participation but its about devotion to God wisdom in decision making, that the Muslims rulers in not obliged to take into consideration the advise and opinion [shura] that are given to him by others.while indeed, there are those who believes that the Islamic principles of shura is enough equivalent to the ?demo? in its modern connotation as Egyptian thinkers like khalid Muhammad khalid  he said ??shura in Islam is the democracy that gives people right to choose their rulers and their deputies and representatives, as well as the right to practice freedom of thought, opinion and opposition??


Selected speech of late Mallam Aminu Kano
Selected speech of  late chief obafemi Awolowo
Tony Wright                   The British political process, an introduction
Colin pilkigton               Representative democracy today
Rud Hague and et el      Comparative government and politics


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