hausa history

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dan kauye:
Quote from: "pureheart"

Dear all
Have you heard about the theory (or rather, the hypothesis) that we the hausawa are originally from Ethiopia? Apparently there are various similarities between ancient hausa culture and the Ethiopian civilisation. So forget Bayajida and his sons! We may actually have migrated from East Africa. I never really believed that story anyway about the snake (or was it a monster) in the well and how the so-called Bayajidah, the man from Baghdad rescued a whole village from the torment of the snake. It sounds too much like a fantasy. Ya kuka gani?



how do u know dat hausa and ethiopian culture are similar?? u read it sumwhere or wut??...well,there waz dis (late) cousin of myne who was suffering from sickle cell anaemia,on hearing dat ethiopia is a gud curing haven 4 d illness my late cuosin's dad decided 2 giv d ethiopian  trip a try and i happen 2 be part of d entourage.i must say dey've got nuffing in common wit d hausas ...infact they are more yoruba in culture....so i wud lyk 2 believe its all say-say...get anoda fact.


ai har gara ma asalin hausawa in relation 2 ethiopia atleast both parties are black ,d funny 1 is wai yarabawa (yoruba) asalin su larabawa (arab)ne
lol....imagine..wut a little wyte lie..and dey've got their stated facts in history books which says dey originated 4rm d mid-east...so wat hav u got 2 say bout dis one???...

Shiekh:
yauwa Dan kauye, pls help me tell them. :lol:

guest1:
yarbawa are descendants of oduduwa who came down from the sky on a chain and landed in Ife, or Benini depending on who's telling the story.Ba abin da ya hada su da larabawa.

Anonymous:
mhn pure heart..if you think Hausas pack their goods and migrated from Ethiopia to the present day Nigeria and Niger then you are in for a suprised.

Let me try and relate to you how the situation was..based on what I understand from history books and personal researches..I really try to make it short..

Here we go..

IN THE BEGINNING...

There were people living in the Savannah regions of Northern Nigeria and Southern Niger.

Those people were speaking diffrent dialects that are closely related....a linguist should say Chadic Languages of Afroasiatic group.

The Afroasiatic family is divided into six branches: Egyptian, Semtic, Berber, Cushitic, Omotic, and Chadic. According to one theory, the languages of the Afroasiatic family are thought to have first been spoken along the shores of the Red Sea. That time when Sahara Desert was a fertile wet land. When the land was incresingly becoming dryer, the people move Northward and southward away from the desert to a greener land. The people now known to be chadic move to the the area around the present day Lake Chad (remember..Lake Chad was the remains of the Great Sahara Sea that dried up...long long time ago)

From there people kept dispersing and occupy the vast savannah. This is evident from the fact that many languages in the present day Bornu-Yobe-Bauchi-Plateau-Gombe and some part of Adamawa belong to the same group as Hausa...The Chadic Group! Note that Kanem, Kanuri and Shuwa Arab are non Chadic Language.

I have reasons to believe that the wide area now covered by the Hausas was previously occupied by the same race speaking diffrent Chadic Languages (of which the then Hausa might just be one of those smaller dialect) as their cousins in the Plateau Highland and Lake Chad Basins.

THE ARRIVAL OF BAYAJIDDA...

The people were living, you might similar to the way their cousins on the plateau (there might not be people at all on the plateau then!) and the Lake Chad Basin. There arised a King from a small setlement of Daura! His stories differs: People like Mohammad bello bn Usman bn Fodio relates that he (Bayajidda) might be a servant of the Kanem-Bornu King.

Kanem-Bornu was a civilised kingdom to the East of the Chad Basin, that conqured some part of the Basin and established its capital to the west of Lake Chad (right into the Chadic Group teritories). Going by Mohammad bello's theory, the King might have just sent Bayajidda to conquer the remaining part of the Basin that was not under his control for expansionism attitude of most civilised kingdoms then (Even now..just look at United States).

Another theory, that rhythms most with the oral tradition is: He could just come from anywhere most likely a rebel warrior from Bornu(whatever he definately passed through Kanem Bornu Empire). he arrive a small settlement called Daura where he might have killed the Snake or whatever.

THE SNAKE AND THE WELL OF DAURA..

The story of the Snake is an interesting one. Most people of Red Sea origin were known to be attributing some supernatural and magical power to snakes. They almost all have some stories about snakes (the most feared god in ancient egypt was called Ra...a snake god..or is it snake headed???) Remember how Tsumburbura was found according to Kano Chronicles holding a snake in its hand? also when one king of kano was reverting to Paganism he was asked to sacrifice a snake...and .?

The people of Daura were worshipping the snake. Considering the location of Daura at the fringe of the desert, one can easily see that water is scarce there. The oral tradition narrates that the new arrival was looking for water but was told that water can only be fetched on a certain day (reference to Friday is definately the influence of Islam..so it might not be true) when a sort of sacrifice must have been performed to their god-snake whom the oral tradition said they called Sarki.

Bayajidda being a non chadic might not have respect for their diety, so he defied and killed it. When the people saw what he did they were awed and might have consider him as a god too. They gave him the name Sarki and made him a ruler over them. (it is only natural, isnt it?)

This Hausa Language might be the Language of the tribe that settled in Daura.

THE SPREAD OF HAUSA AND HAUSA STATES

Bayajidda now established himself in Daura. Since the story said he camee to Daura alone so we assume he now learned the Daura language (or should I say Hausa..that was not existing as it is now) He now wants to expands his Kingdom. The children of Bayajidda or his liutenants or even his slaves were dispatched for the purpose. They conquered the neighbouring tribes as far as Kano and Founded the Hausa States.

The story of Banza Bakwai is not true at all. It was probably devised by the Jihadist to create a Sense of Unity among the citizens of the caliphate. Just look at it, the Hausa Bakwai are the roughly the Hausa Speaking Emirates of the Caliphates and they mostly are part of the Eastern Caliphate while the Banza Bakwai are the non Hausa Speaking Emirates ithat formed the Western Caliphate ncluding Yoruba of Illorin!

Any tribe from the so called Banza Bakwai will hiss if you tell him this story as there was no evidence that they know Bayajidda or have any link to him.

As tribe by tribe fall to the kingdom of Daura, they culture and the language of the conquered and conqueror intermiggled with definately an upper hand for the Daura dialect. With time the tribes were assimilated. Some tribes moves further into the Mountaineous regions to the south and to the west. to avoid the expansion. The Hausa Language was most probly the dialect of the daura settlement with many borrowed word from the conquered tribes (Tribes that lived around Kano mentioned even in Kano ta Dabo Cigari and other tribes occupying the Lake Chad Basin, Zagzagawa Gobirawa and the rest). The conquest and the expansion was to the south and the west probabaly to avoid clash with mightier Kanem Bornu, thus sparing the people of Yobe-Bauchi and Beyond the Plateau.

THE NEW RELIGION: ISLAM

Mohammad Bello confirmed that at the time of the Jihad they Hausa States were paying tributes to the Bornu Kings. He drew his conclusion of the Bayajidda Bornu theory from that. There was no direct reference to any conquest of the Hausa States by the Bornu King, so Mohammad Bello could nt see any reason why it should be so.

Whatever, if we assume Bayajidda was a Borno escaped warrior (or even prisioner charged with treason), we will be lead to assume later the Hausa States were faced with a threat from Bornu which the Hausa probably repelled with a promised of paying annual tributes...it was a very common practice in the past. The Hausas were conquered by other expanding tribes like the Jukuns thou the conquest was not permanent...reason? ask the Jukuns :D  :D. It can be safely be concluded that each state was autonamous, thou they were all looking at Daura as thier spiritual home before all Pagan ties were dissolved with the coming of Islam.

Bayajidda being from or passed through Bornu..if he was correctly fixed in the time frame..must have known about Islam or could have been a Muslim himself even thou nominal. His conquest although seen as politically motivated was the last blow on the Paganism in the savannah. He destroyed the natives deities and left them with no religion except reverance for the king 'Sarki'. so when Islam arrives it was readily accepted. We must not forget that the natives accepted Islam but the memories of their gods destroyed by the Hausa (Daura) conquerors was still fresh. They tendency was the mixture of the two religions. The situation remain so until the advent of the Jihad.

The coming of Islam further enriched the Hausa Language with Arabic and Tuaregs languages. Althought even before the Hausa tribal Languages must have consist of words that are similar from the said two languages since they all belonged to the Afroasiatic Languages.

THE JIHAD EXPANSION

The Jihad of Dan Fodio that was for the separation of Islam and the native worship brought to the scene another completely non chadic elements to Hausa Language, The Fulani Elements. At the same time it helped in spreading the Hausa Language to the areas unconquered by Bayajidda's liutenents. The Fulani swordmen ravage the whole savannah and brought to an end the dynasty in the mighty Bornu Empire. The ventured even far into the Forst region and add ilorin to their map. More smaller tribes were pushed further into the mountain to preserve their heritages as fulani cavalry couldnt penetrate the mountain.

The Fulani adopted the Hausa Language for running the administartion of the Caliphate. hence more people who were not Hausas until then were assimilated. While some, like the Nupes, Gwaris and even the Kanuris adopted it as a second language.

The Jihad brought the Hausas to the Bauchi-Gombe-Adamawa-Taraba Regions. The tribes of Bauchi were slowly absorbed into the Hausa fold. The Zazzau kingdom was displaced by the jihadist to the south into Abuja Regions. Later Hausa and Fulani adventurers founded the Hausa Emirates of Lafia, Nassarawa, Keffi on the lower plateau, Wase, Dass and formerly Jos on the upper plateau thus pushing the unconquered tribes further into the mountains. To the north the kings of Daura nad Katsina were pushed to the fringe of the desert into the south of Niger abandoning their cities.
The tribes of Jamaare-Hadejia Basin formerly under Bornu were curved out and they were made into Hausas.

THE BRITISH CONQUEST AND POST INDEPENDANCE

The conquest of the caliphate by the British and the indirect rule further unite the people now speaking the Daura dialect..ouch! I mean Hausa dialect. The british consolidated the caliphate and the hithero unconquered tribes were conquered by the British and merge with the caliphate. Although they were given a seperate identity by the British - Christianity- as opposed to the Islam of the Hausas, they adopte as a second language and Hausa is now doing to their dialects as it did to their cousins almost a thousand years ago!

The British Conquest also took the Hausa Back to near its Original Home. The Red Sea Coast, with Emigration of many people running away from the british rule and settling in central African countries with many of them reaching the red sea. The Hausas living in the central Africa didnt succeed in Hausanizing any tribe but their Language was rather facing extinction there, and it was badly influence and corrupted by Arabic in about 8 million Hausas in Sudan. But atleast they were not there as conquerors but rather poor immigrants!

CONCLUSION

It could be seen that there were people in the Savannah of Northern nigeria even before the coming of Bayajidda or the Pureheart's Ethiopians.

The people now calling themselves Hausas were actually a mixture of many tribes settling in the vast presently called Hausa and immigrant from beyond and may come as settlers or imposing themselves as kings.

Concluded.
Abubakr Mohammed Manzo

Anonymous:
the history of the Hausa's is something that need to be extensively research on the ethopia issue and all other origin should be kook into ofcourse i do not believe in the Bayajjida and the snake tell, it is too cheap glorifying certain areas, which are not the only Hausa speaking group

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