Ramadan Mubarak!

I pray that we get the full blessings of Ramadan and may Allah (SWT) grant us more blessings in the year to come.
Amin Summa Amin.

Ramadan Kareem,

Main Menu


Started by Abbas Bubakar El-ta'alu, November 10, 2008, 08:22:46 AM

Previous topic - Next topic

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Abbas Bubakar El-ta'alu

                                                                                 "How?" and "Why?"- ways to the truth."
                                                                                                  ~ Hakeem Sanai ~
                                                                                                    (12th Century)

What are the factors that influence smoking behaviour?
   Most people who smoke begin doing so before they are 25 years old. Worldwide observations suggest that people start to smoke cigarette at a much younger age. World Health Organization's studies reveal that the majority of smokers in affluent countries begin in their teens.
   People do not start smoking just like that, some thing somewhere and somehow must ignite the start. This posting deals not only with those aspects that make smokers to begin cigarette smoking but also the methods employed in smoking.

Performance enhancement: Tobacco smoke contains nicotine (see chapter four), a stimulant, which increases acetylcholine levels in the brain, temporarily increasing memory and alertness [Nicotine and the Brain, Rezvani, & Levin. (2001); Jacqueline Hart. (2004) ; Gilbert. (1979), Rose, Anada & Jarvik. (1983)]. Recent evidence [Nicotine and the Brain., Rezvani, & Levin. (2001)] has shown that use of nicotine also increases dopamine levels in the brain (see chapter four), promoting feelings of pleasure and reward. Another study [Springer & Heidelberg (1998)] found that smokers exhibit better reaction-time and memory performance as they tire compared to non-smokers.

Nicotine addiction: Nicotine, an element of tobacco smoke, is one of the most addictive substances that exists. It causes both physical and psychological dependence (see chapter four).It was rated [Henningfield and Benwitz] that nicotine is more addictive than heroin, alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and caffeine. Many smokers continue to use tobacco even though they wish they could stop. Most smokers use nicotine compulsively. Nicotine addiction can occur as soon as five months after the start of smoking [Jennifer O'Loughlin. (2006)].
   It is difficult to quit smoking due to the withdrawal symptoms, which include clinical depression, insomnia, irritability, anxiety, decreased heart rate, weight gain, nicotine cravings (see chapters four and six). The relapse rate for quitters is high: about 60 per cent relapse in three months. Also, nicotine users are sometimes reluctant to quit smoking because they do not see any short-term damages it may cause.

Tobacco Advertising: Before the 1970s, most tobacco advertising was legal in most European countries and the United States of America. In the United States, in the 1950s and 1960s, cigarette brands were frequently sponsors of television shows. One of the most famous television jingles of the era came from an advertisement for Winston cigarettes. The slogan "Winston tastes good like a cigarette should!" proved to be catchy, and is still quoted today.
   Many countries, including Russia and Ukraine, still allow billboards advertising tobacco use. Tobacco smoking is still advertised in special magazines, during sporting events, in gas stations and stores, and in more rare cases on television.
   In the United States, it was well known that tobacco companies are marketing tobacco smoking to minors [Tobacco-free kids]. For example, Reynolds American Inc. used the Joe Camel cartoon character to advertise Camel cigarettes. Other brands such as Virginia Slims targeted women with slogans like "You've Come a Long Way Baby".
   Recently, some nations began anti- smoking advertisements to counter the effects of tobacco advertising.
      The actual effectiveness of tobacco advertisement is widely debated. According to an opinion piece [Henry Saffer], public health experts [Johnston, O'Malley& Bachman. (1999); Tobacco use among middle and high school students. (2000)] say that tobacco advertising increases cigarette consumption.

Peer pressure: Many anti – smoking organizations say that teen agers begin their smoking habits due to peer pressure. However, [Urberg, et al. (1990)] found that direct pressure to smoke cigarettes did not play a significant part in adolescent smoking (see chapter six). In that study, adolescents also reported low levels of both normative and direct pressure to smoke cigarettes. A similar study [Henningfield & Benowitz] showed that individuals play a more active in starting to smoke than has
previously been acknowledged and that social processes (like the desire to fit in with the peers, i.e., to be relevant), other than peer pressure need to be taken into account. Another study's results [Predictors (2006)] revealed that peer pressure was significantly associated with smoking behaviour across all age and gender cohorts, but that intrapersonal factors were significantly more important to the smoking behaviour of 12 – 13 year-old girls than same-age boys. Within the 14- 15 year-old age group, one peer pressure variable emerged as a significantly more important predictor of girls' than boys' smoking. It is debated whether peer pressure or self – selection is a greater cause of adolescent smoking.

"It is not the strongest species that survive nor the most intelligent, but the ones that are more responsive to change"
                               ~ Charles Darwin ~

"You can not hold a man down without staying down with him".