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1
General Board / BACK TO SWEDEN IN MEMORY OF PROFESSOR SABO BAKO
« on: May 10, 2016, 07:20:01 AM »
BACK TO SWEDEN IN MEMORY OF PROFESSOR SABO BAKO
(15 MARCH 1959- 1 DECEMBER 2010)
BY
JIBO NURA
December, 1, 2010, will for long remains one of the most shocking moments in the history of my life.  It was the day I received the news of the passing of my mentor, teacher and very close confidant-Professor Sabo Bako. Initially, I could not believe what I was told that Mallam Sabo is dead. When Dr. Agbo Johnson,  Prof Sabo’s PhD student called me from far away Jalingo first thing in the morning, to break the news of his passing, I did not believe him. I told Agbo no!  I spoke with Prof on phone 15 hours ago. Dr. Agbo further said “I am telling you Prof is dead, so I heard, but I too did not believe it”.
I abruptly dropped the phone after telling Agbo “let me confirm whether what you are saying is true”.
I called Adamu, a relative of Prof Sabo Bako who traumatically said “Nura, wallahi gashi an kira ni da gaggawa nazo Zaria, Dr. Sabo Bako ya rasu. Yanzu zamu binne shi”, meaning: I was urgently called to come to Zaria.  Dr. Sabo Bako is dead.  I am at Zaria. We are going to bury him now.
 Alas, I could not believe Adamu either that the man I had a telephone conversation with at 3pm, was no longer alive.
Hear my conversation with Prof. Sabo at 3pm – a few hours before his death.
Hello Sir!
Prof. Sabo: Hello! Nura ne? (Is this Nura?)
Yes Sir. Yaya aiki? (How’s work?).
Prof. Sabo: Lafiya, kazo Garin ne? (Fine. Are you in town?).
No Sir. I called you to clarify that Aisha (your daughter) is going to do her Industrial Training (I.T) at Freedom Radio Dutse not Radio Jigawa Sir as you might have mistaken. Because the Managing Director of Radio Jigawa called me and said you told him that she (Aisha) is on her away to meet him for her I.T. issue.
Prof. Sabo: O.k. I thought it was Radio Jigawa that you submitted her request?
No Sir! I told you the MD Radio Jigawa was not around when I submitted her request. He travelled out of the country. That is why I suggested Freedom Radio for her since I am together with the Station Manager, Mallam Adamu Ladan.
Prof. Sabo: It’s alright. Call the MD Radio Jigawa ka gaya masa cewa ba wani abu. Ai duk daya ne. Radio Jigawa and Freedom are all the same…uhm. Tun da dai an karbe ta din ai ba komai.  I will also call the MD by myself and explain to him what happened. Kasan na gaya maka shi aboki na ne. You know I told you the MD Radio Jigawa is my friend.
O.k Sir.
Prof. Sabo: When are you coming to Zaria?
On Sunday Sir in sha Allah. Sir, I hope you did not forget about my issue that I said we are going to text governor Lamido?
Prof. Sabo: Oh! Da Allah kayi hakuri (please bear with me). I have forgotten, but let me text him about it now.
O.k. Sir.
Prof. Sabo: Or should I leave it till you come?
Yes Sir. Zai yi kyau ka bari idan nazo na nuna maka abin sai kasan abin da zaka yi masa text a kai (It is better if I come down and show you the stuff so that you know what to text him).
Prof. Sabo: O.k. sai kazo din. Yaushe kace zaka zo?  Ranar Lahadi? (Is alright. When do you say you would be coming? Sunday?
Yes Sir!
Prof. Sabo: Allah ya kawo ka (May Allah makes it easy. Journey mercies!)
Nagode Sir (Thank you Sir).
That was exactly what transpired between me and Dr. Sabo Bako barely 15 hours before he was recalled by Allah-the Almighty. As at that time, if you ask Mallam Sabo as he’s fondly called by Priscilla, an Internet  Café attendant at Burkan, opposite Ahmadu Bello University’s north Gate, he would not  have known that he would die on that day. He would definitely not agree that he would go back to his Maker on that day! We used to spend hours surfing the Net, generally looking for research materials and international conferences.

What people do not know up to the moment of writing this second eulogy about Sabo is that he was the very person that first introduced me to Sweden and its beautiful sceneries, culture, people and tradition.
He made me realized the dream of becoming an international early career scholar by narrating his scholarships and engagement with international education community. The very day he told me stories about his visit to Sweden, I fell in love with the country. He told me about the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI) at Uppsala. Prof. Sabo encouraged me to write and submit abstract anytime there’s a call for it by the NAI. I then asked him the rationale behind submitting an abstract. Sabo said, “Once your abstract is accepted for presentation, NAI usually pays for travelling expenses, accommodation and feeding and even stipends. Ditto CODESRIA! He told me virtually everything about his international presentations that he had in Uppsala. Hear him:
“I was there in 2007. I participated in a discussion and debate on “Reconciling winners and losers in post-conflict elections in West Africa” from the political and policy imperative”. “You see, Sweden is such a lovely environment Nura that I would have loved you to visit. I will be happy if you will try and visit Uppsala one day or go there for studies. Just keep checking the NAI website and see if there’s a call for papers or/and abstract. Make sure you submit a winning abstract. Do you hear?”
I said, “Yes Sir! “I will be visiting the website to see if I can get one and submit”.
Indeed, I learnt quite a lot from listening to his international endeavours. He made me liked Sweden by encouraging me to discover its sights and delights. Sabo enjoyed telling me about Swedish people hospitality and cuisine with a host of authentic, distinguished and enjoyable treasures. He said, “Nura whenever you go to Sweden, make sure to take part in an exciting activity. Be sure you make a visit to the world of sagas and myths i.e. Uppsala.   Truly, the way he took his time telling me about Uppsala, and the passion and love he shared with Swedish people is just like the way Romeo loved old Juliet! In fact, the circumstances surrounding Prof Sabo Bako’s  death taught most of us, especially I, ample lessons in life i.e. we are all from Allah and to Him we shall all return, because He is the creator and possessor of all creatures.
However, I found it very difficult to adjust and contain myself for several days after   his passing. As my first Book reviewer, Prof. Sabo always advises me to be patient and serious about it. He used to guide me and Dr. Agbo. He always urges us to go on critical thinking (thinking outside the box) anytime we are going to submit any serious academic exercise or work. It is a concept that we so much cherished, because it has to do with devising solutions where there are none. That is why most of our paper abstracts hardly missed selection whenever we present any to conference abstract/panel reviewers.
He fondly used to tell me and his junior colleagues Mallam Tafida and Dr. Sama’ila not to be involved in garrison democracy. The last time I and him featured prominently was during the Zazzau History Conference that took place on 10 June 2010 where we presented our papers with dignity and pageantry. Prof Sabo in his usual academic venture talked exhaustibly on the history and politics of Friday Mosques proliferation in Zaria metropolis. His paper, controversial as it might appear to those who don’t know him (knowledge wise), was full of wisdom and meaning, most especially in terms of salvaging our numerous mosques from neglect and collapse. He did a lot of work on religion and politics in Africa. Notably amongst them was his PhD thesis: “The  Maitatsine Revolts: A Socio-Political Explanation of the Islamic Insurrections in Northern Nigeria 1980-85”. This PhD thesis won CODESRIA small grant award, because it was excellently written. He conducted and coordinated research project on “Africa in Crisis” where he contributed a Book chapter on the “State in Crisis in Africa” for the Africa Centre for Social and Political Research Zaria, Nigeria in 1998.  He also conducted a research on the Islamic Reform Movement and its transnational Dimension: A study of Yan Izala, Yan shi’a and Yan Islamiyya in Northern Nigeria and presented it to the Institute for Advanced Social Science (Ehess) at Paris. Sabo Bako was the winner of the international sixth annual dissertation workshop sponsored by the Committee of the Comparative Study of Muslim Societies organized by the American Science Research Council, which took place at Digby’s Stuart College, London in July 1991. He made so many presentations at the Muslim Institute, London on Muslim political thought during colonial period in 1989.   As a panelist and member, Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) Sabo Bako kept on encouraging me immediately we came back from Dakar in 2006, to pursue research with intellectual vigour and interest.
He was due for professorship since 1 October 2005, but was not given for reasons best known to the Department of Political Science, Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria. After all, he had been a reader (Associate Prof) since October 2001. His postgraduate taught courses were quite revolutionary educationally. He taught contemporary political theory; advanced comparative politics; classical political thoughts; Nigeria and West Africa; and issues in world politics. Prof’s doctorate students that he supervised and graduated are today intellectual giants in the field of political science. Doctors such as Kabiru Mato; Jubril Bala Mohammed; Shehu Isma’il ; Moses Ukpenumewu Tedekhe ; Musa Yusuf;  Umar Aminu and Agbo Johnson are all spectacular political scientists that were bred by Sabo Bako of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. My closeness with Sabo made me feel relaxed anytime I was discussing my ideas with him about Nigeria and its position in the contemporary world. Even though I sometimes differ with him in ideology, but we always come to term after thorough analysis of our ideas.  My relationship with him grew so intimately and strong after sharing our thoughts one Friday afternoon on nationhood and nation building and on Africa’s position in contemporary world. Since then, there’s nothing-be it conference, symposium, workshop or call for papers that I would bring to him without bending our heads to it until we submit our ideas with happiness.

[Picture of late Prof. Sabo Bako, Department of Political Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria].

Prof Sabo’s next intellectual journey, which he seriously had in mind before his passing, was the West African Research Association’s (WARA’s) international conference that took place in June 2011 at Niger Republic where he asked me to develop a panel paper in his office. I developed it and gave him to study. He agreed to speak on “Leadership and Governance in Muslim Northern Nigeria”. I chose to talk on “Traditional Hausa Architecture, City Walls and Gates in Royal Palaces of Northern Nigeria”.  He asked me to phone Prof Abdallah Uba Adamu of  Bayero University, Kano(BUK) and inform him about the conference to see if he’s interested. I called and informed Prof Abdallah who happily agreed to join the panel. Both of them called few days after the submission to WARA to confirm whether our panel paper was sent or not. I told them that it was already acknowledged and accepted for presentation by the organizers!
Indeed, most of Prof. Sabo Bako’s colleagues in the political science department are still not aware of many of his intellectual engagements. My closeness to him made me understand that he’s a reservoir of knowledge that had written amply about religion and politics in contemporary Africa. Prof Dunmoye (Sabo Bako’s PhD supervisor) groomed him so well. Therefore, it became very easy for Dr. Sabo to face intellectual giants such as Dr. Bala Usman and his disciples. There was a time I curiously asked him what happened in their yesteryears of intellectual exchange i.e. between the rightists and leftists ideological movement in ABU. He laughably said ai wannan maganar tawuce…uhmm. But I still insisted to hear from him. He then told me about his Court experience with Dr.  Bala Usman, Abdullahi Mahadi and co. He said well, “they filed a case against me in Court over clash of ideology(s). They claimed damages of almost N2million Naira. That time I was in South Africa when Dr. Bala Usman’s disciples came to my house and claimed what the Court ruled in their favour”. The rest is history.

Two years after his demise, precisely in the year 2012, I began searching for more international conferences and calls for paper abstracts as he advised me to do. Luckily, I got one from the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI) webpage! There was a call for abstracts on “Warlords: Agents of change or Instigators of Insecurity?”. Immediately I saw it, I started reading on the topic. I eventually came up with an abstract titled, “Warlord politics, socio-economic crises and garrison democracy in Africa: A case study of Nigeria, Liberia and DRC”. I sent it to NAI for assessment. To my great surprise, it was accepted for oral presentation. I was so happy that I would follow the footsteps of my intellectual ‘teacher-friend’. I was deeply elated, because my dream of visiting Sweden for the first time was then realized. I could only be disturbed when I made it to Sweden on 17 May 2012 without Dr. Sabo Bako. However, to me it was a mission well fulfilled and accomplished. At least I have taken over from where he stopped with personal temerity.
 
First picture: Front row in the middle: Myself and Ingrid Anderson of NAI. Others are Daniel Poon, Bola Atiwade, Profs. Anders Themner, Mats Utas and the Nordic Africa Institute research colleagues at Uppsala after a workshop session on 17 May 2012.



Why I always shed tears whenever I remember the time we had in his office strategizing about creating a virile educational and cultural relationship with Sweden and Senegal, I became intellectually defeated in spirit.

Now that I am going back to Sweden for the second time to make two presentations at the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Stockholm on Africa’s regional climate, I think I am quite pleased for continuing with the Sweden-Nigeria educational exchange and relationship. Indeed, five years after Prof. Bako’s death, I feel mostly fulfilled, because I have carried on from where he stopped. I hope to visit the Swedish Institute at Stockholm and discuss with that public agency how to immortalize Prof. Sabo Bako’s scholarly writings. I will be most grateful if I can establish this relationship and bilateral cooperation between serious Nigerian University international scholars such as Sabo and the Swedish Institute.
To me, this is a task that must be done if I want to one day reflect back and say yes, I have actualized my dream of immortalizing Prof. Sabo Bako. Why I even became so worried about Dr. Sabo Bako’s intellectual struggle, is because of his PhD thesis that is left unpublished, which could have given more insights into the recent proliferations of Boko Haram crises in Northern Nigeria. That thesis, which I lost its original copy together with my first car to thieves at a fuel filling Station in Zaria was given to me by his wife. After my condolence visit to the family, his wife brought it and handed it over to me. She said, “Mallam Nura hold this. It will be more beneficial to you, because I know you did most of your research activities together”.
In fact, the more reason why I should visit the Swedish Institute on Dr. Bako’s works is because of the importance of reviving his legacy that his children and the academic world will live to see and benefit. His eldest daughter, Aisha Sabo Bako could have benefitted more from her Dad’s intellectual prowess. But sadly, Aisha too passed away two weeks ago, precisely April 2016 in Zaria, Nigeria. The news of her passing reached me with lots of remorse. Her death left me with no choice than to write this second tribute in memory. Even though Aisha’s death was a sudden one, but her Dad died of acute urinary tract infection with hypovolemic shock. May God forgive Aisha and give her family the fortitude to bear her loss and that of Prof. Sabo Bako.
We love you, but Allah loves you more than us.
Jibo Nura (QS),
Wrote in from Jigawa.

2
chit-chat / Kanoonline Celebrities
« on: April 27, 2016, 09:45:09 PM »
Assalam Kanoonliners. It's nice to be back. It's great to have a flashback after so long a time no see!

I commend Admin, Malam Salisu Danyaro for reviving Kanoonline forum. I admire Dan Borno's personal temerity, hospitality and even "cuisine" for all the phone calls to inform us that Kanoonline is on, alive and kicking. Immediately DB called, I quickly logged in and had a cursory look and posted few hilarious jokes and tsokana as I am fond of doing so. Na tsokani Husna da "Myself" di na da kuma abokin fama THE LEGENDARY Waziri.


But today, I will be a bit serious. Yes! I will try to be serious.

The idea I have in mind  is to celebrate our owns. I think it will be good to honour people such as Prof. Abdalla Uba Adamu--one of the Dwarfs in this forum. We are going to honour him, because he is today the Vice Chancellor of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Abuja, Nigeria. We will as well honour abokiyar Rikici da kuma Mace mai kama da Mazan fama, Husnaa...Hus..Hus.... Why we must honour Husnaa is because she joined this forum while a PhD candidate in Hong Kong. I hooked her up here men! But today, Husnaa is now a full PhD holder in Geography, Geographic Information Systems, Earth Observatory da dai sauransu! LoL!!!!

We also need to honour and celebrate "Wazirin Zazzau" and His Royal Highness, the Emir of Kano, honourable Sanusi Lamido Sanusi. Waziri and Sarkin Kano deserved to be honoured for their contributions to Islamic debate and probably Islamic literature! Hahaha!!!

This celebration of Kanoonline celebrities will be extended to Kanoonline Dan Kutunguila wato Muhsin. Muhsin came to this forum as toddler in English language literature and drama. But today Yaro ya Girma ya Isa Aure har an Masa.  Ba kamar Dan Ibro ba( May Allah forgive Ibro) da yaki yayi wa nasa Dan ya bar shi ya lalace!!! LoL!
Muhsin is today a full grown up lecturer of English and Drama at BUK.

Sannan we need to honour Dan Borno. Dan Borno a legal luminary is now a Special Assistant to Borno state Governor.

I have forgotten to start this "honourarium" with webmaster. Because without webmaster da Gogannaka ya zama Gwauro ko kuma ince Tuzu...Ey! Hakan take! Webmaster aikin sa yayi kyau. Thanks to SMS that saw our forumnite couples  through. I wish them safe journey home!! Lafs!!!

So where is Hausanicious and Waziri or MLBash? Please let one of you continue from where I stopped. Suggestion and nomination please?

I forgot to tell you that the venue of this Kanoonline celebrity should be our normal joint--the British Council. Come-on let us fix a date and see how our invitation can reach out to San Kano.

Best,

Nuruddeen.

3
General Board / Let's celebrate Kanoonliners
« on: April 27, 2016, 09:40:00 PM »


Assalam Kanoonliners. It's nice to be back. It's great to have a flashback after so long a time no see!

I commend Admin, Malam Salisu Danyaro for reviving Kanoonline forum. I admire Dan Borno's personal temerity, hospitality and even "cuisine" for all the phone calls to inform us that Kanoonline is on, alive and kicking. Immediately DB called, I quickly logged in and had a cursory look and posted few hilarious jokes and tsokana as I am fond of doing so. Na tsokani Husna da "Myself" di na da kuma abokin fama THE LEGENDARY Waziri.


But today, I will be a bit serious. Yes! I will try to be serious.

The idea I have in mind  is to celebrate our owns. I think it will be good to honour people such as Prof. Abdalla Uba Adamu--one of the Dwarfs in this forum. We are going to honour him, because he is today the Vice Chancellor of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), Abuja, Nigeria. We will as well honour abokiyar Rikici da kuma Mace mai kama da Mazan fama, Husnaa...Hus..Hus.... Why we must honour Husnaa is because she joined this forum while a PhD candidate in Hong Kong. I hooked her up here men! But today, Husnaa is now a full PhD holder in Geography, Geographic Information Systems, Earth Observatory da dai sauransu! LoL!!!!

We also need to honour and celebrate "Wazirin Zazzau" and His Royal Highness, the Emir of Kano, honourable Sanusi Lamido Sanusi. Waziri and Sarkin Kano deserved to be honoured for their contributions to Islamic debate and probably Islamic literature! Hahaha!!!

This celebration of Kanoonline celebrities will be extended to Kanoonline Dan Kutunguila wato Muhsin. Muhsin came to this forum as toddler in English language literature and drama. But today Yaro ya Girma ya Isa Aure har an Masa.  Ba kamar Dan Ibro ba( May Allah forgive Ibro) da yaki yayi wa nasa Dan ya bar shi ya lalace!!! LoL!
Muhsin is today a full grown up lecturer of English and Drama at BUK.

Sannan we need to honour Dan Borno. Dan Borno a legal luminary is now a Special Assistant to Borno state Governor.

I have forgotten to start this "honourarium" with webmaster. Because without webmaster da Gogannaka ya zama Gwauro ko kuma ince Tuzu...Ey! Hakan take! Webmaster aikin sa yayi kyau. Thanks to SMS that saw our forumnite couples  through. I wish them safe journey home!! Lafs!!!

So where is Hausanicious and Waziri or MLBash? Please let one of you continue from where I stopped. Suggestion and nomination please?

I forgot to tell you that the venue of this Kanoonline celebrity should be our normal joint--the British Council. Come-on let us fix a date and see how our invitation can reach out to San Kano.

Best,

Nuruddeen.

4
POST-WARLORD POLITICS AND GARRISON DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA: A cross-military examination of Babangida, Obasanjo, Ironsi, Murtala, Gawon, Abacha and Buhari.
By
Jibo Nura
This study examines the political authority that Nigerian military presidents and post-warlords use to perpetually remain in power by utilizing states’ resources for their benefits and interest. It explains the meltdown of warlords’ military hierarchy(s) into civilians in Nigeria, as witnessed in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The study argues that the rise of post-military warlordism exacerbates socio-economic problems, which pave way for garrison democracy in Nigeria and generally in Africa. The rulers’ efforts to manage external challenge and the transformation of old military officers into emergency democrats, establish local power bases in Africa that proliferates warlordism. Post-warlord politics in weak, but very rich and endowed states such as Nigeria, Liberia and Democratic Republic of Congo become incessant where rulers privatize and own public sector companies via patronage and clandestine economic exchange with foreign markets. This study therefore provides an alternative approach and new model based on paradigm shift from the politics of warlords’ Godfatherism, clientelism and patrimonialism in weak states such as Nigeria to a clear model of ‘rational’ politics that can work in Africa’s political-economy.
Thus warfare and chaos in Nigeria, especially during civil war aggravated internal security dilemmas for rulers in neighbouring states with vulnerable patronage systems. The cross-border dimension of the Liberian conflict played a pivotal role in forcing Nigeria’s and Sierra Leone's rulers to innovate with new political and military arrangements, some of which mimic Taylor's practices. This they did to address this threat to their survival in the absence of formal state
institutions (William, 1997). Taylor also encountered others among Doe's former associates who adopted his methods for their own purposes. The remnants of the Doe regime called upon a regional organization, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to intervene to defend what had now become the Monrovia enclave. Some speculate that this Nigerian-led intervention followed close commercial ties between some military officers in Nigerian president Babangida's entourage and Doe's military (Ellis, 1995). An equally valid possibility is that a concert of vulnerable West African rulers may have also acted to deny control of Liberia to a strongman who so closely resembled would-be rivals in their own vulnerable patron-client networks.

As Godwin (2012) had it in his “countdown on Nigeria’s military leaders from 1960-2007”, i.e. General Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida, clearly, is the worst head of state Nigeria ever produced, because he self-styled himself as president by overthrowing the Buhari-Idiagbon government, which was doing very well in fighting corruption. But because he wanted to satisfy his personal interest, he confiscated power from them and corruptibly presided over Nigeria. He devalued the naira greatly, collected IMF loan, introduced SAP and legalized corruption and bribery in the Nigerian civil service. He is the father of corruption in Nigeria and still wields considerable corrupt military political influence in happenings in the country today. Upon all the best brains he used in his cabinet, Nigerians could only witness corruption in perpetuity. He was the very person that gave local government councilors, who most of them could not write down their names a monthly salary of over N30, 000 when a Professor in the university was earning a pay of less than N10, 000 monthly. The first ASUU strike in Nigeria took place during Babangida’s time and up till today it has a chain effect on every Nigerian student that goes to university. He was the person that introduced mediocrity in the civil service. His military hey presto schematically supported the coming of pro tem military government of Abdussalam after the demise of Abacha, and interim transitional government of Shonekan that in the end handed over powers to Obasanjo and Abacha respectively. That was how Babangida presided over Nigeria as if it was a chattel government based on military patrimonialism!
The second worst Nigeria’s military president is General Olusegun Obasanjo: He was very loyal to his boss, Murtala Ramat Mohammed. He continued with his (boss) agenda and handed over power to a civilian government in 1979 until in 1999 when he mysteriously emerged from prison via one of the Babangida’s corrupt military tactics and antics that he found in the new and emergency military democrat- Obasanjo.  His government was marred by all sorts of atrocities. Every responsible mind that witnessed or lived during Obasanjo’s militarized politics will definitely sympathize with Nigeria on two things. First, her position as a failed state under the his own kind of  democratic regime; where all democratic etiquettes, principles and freedom are no longer harmonized and permutated but intertwined with disequilibria forces, which disproportionately act and transform the citizenry into everlasting corruptible generations. Second are the pathological symptoms and chronic signs of power-mongering that are explicitly manifest in our leadership style throughout his stay in power from 1999-2007.
Under Obasanjo’s Nigeria, when a public officer, elected or appointed, assumes responsibility of the  affairs either at Federal, State, or Local government levels, the congratulatory message among his/her relatives, friends, siblings and even parents are centred on one common impression that God has answered their prayers, because they believe that they are secluded from poverty, hunger and starvation. Almost all pieces of advice that such an officer will come by from close associates is that he/she should by every means try and maintain that position for the second, third or even fourth time. He/she will be told to amass as much wealth as possible from the public treasury, just in case power may be relinquished! And once this is done, the thinking of the officer in question will be narrowed and confined to those close allies, relatives and parents. All the ‘accumulated wealth’ (loot) will be enjoyed by him/herself and also by their kith and kin. This is the definition of leadership in the then Obasanjo’s Nigeria! The egocentricity was so obvious that it had even reached its ‘peak value’, where other significant moral indexes like good human conscience, patriotism, discipline, accountability, honesty, and nationalism have been swept under the carpet. In this context, the providential revenue from oil has become the basic way of getting things done, but also the objective of the competition between political factions – something which perpetuates the vicious circle of clientelism. It is entirely characteristic of such a system that Obasanjo added the functions of Oil Minister to his Presidential duties. Thus, it is clear that Obasanjo never broke with the methods of the privatization of state assets practiced by his predecessors, Babangida and Abacha.
The third worst military president in Nigeria is General Aguiyi Ironsi: Though history did not state his involvement in the senseless and bloody coup that brought him to power led by Major Kaduna Chukwuma Nzeogwu, but he did not help matters in exonerating himself completely from the act and that led to his ousting by the Gowon group of T Y Danjuma and co coup. He is the third worst president of Nigeria, because of his die-hard tribalism.
The fourth worst military president was General Murtala Ramat Mohammed. He was one of the seven military rulers Nigeria produced. He had noble agenda, but his sense of judgment was marred by ethnic sentiments as it was alleged in his reshuffling of the civil service and appointments. This action of his provoked hatred from groups that felt marginalized and that led to his assassination in the hands of Col. Dimka and co. coup.
The third best Nigerian military president was General Yakubu Gowon. This was a man that defended our unity, due apologies to the Igbo nation, our country was somehow better off as one. With due regret over lives lost during the civil war, Gowon made the right choice as enshrined in our National pledge. According to Godwin (2012), Gawon, defended Nigeria’s unity and uphold her honour and glory.
The second best military leader was General Sani Abacha. Though lots of people will disagree with second place for a second best, especially for a dictator like Abacha, but he was able to address pressing issues during his time. Security in Nigeria under Abacha, was almost impeccable, the economy was relatively stable, and albeit excommunicated by western powers, but Nigeria did relatively well. We won Atlanta 96 and had the best players then. Abacha may have hurt some persons, but on general assessment, he earned second best place. No wonder Professor Sam Aluko preferred Abacha’s economic policy than the Babangida’s and Obasanjo’s.
The best military man, coming first place was General Muhammadu Buhari. He merits this place by his love for the common man, and by extension, the masses. He had the love of the country at heart. Everything he did was geared towards improving the attitude and economy of the common man. He introduced WAI. He crushed the Maitatsine uprising for good. He maintained a stable economy. He provided a dependable security. He was not guided by greed like most of his counterparts. He sure took first place. However, Buhari, is the worst military democrat Nigeria ever produced, because he was ravaged by his military opponents in politics as a religious bigot and as someone who had a bad record of human rights abuse. Buhari in politics, fails to learn the rudiments of Nigeria’s garrison democracy by allowing himself to be waylaid by many opportunists in Nigeria such as El-rufa’i, Kanti Bello, Buba Galadima, Sule Hamma  and co. He is today one of the frustrated military political elites who has been messed up by certain segments of Nigeria’s most corrupt political party-the so-called ruling party in Nigeria.
In spite of all these military Heads of Nigeria positions in military juntaism and undertaking, Nigerians are in no way better off, because all of them succeeded in transferring their personal vendetta and grudges into unprecedented national problems that today negatively affect virtually all Nigerian citizens. They unnecessarily transformed their personal military problems and differences into a national leadership problem that lives Nigeria in terrible governance quagmire.
As Spinoza et al asserted in his own analysis of Nigeria “Is the end of mafia politics in sight?” i.e. Nigeria should be one of the richest states in Africa, yet it has one of the highest rates of poverty, and can scarcely boast a middle class. This suggests an examination of the relationship between the economic system and the political one.
We must not be deceived by the consistent growth recorded between 2003 and 2006 (and not only in the oil sector) by the repayment of $35 billion of debt and increasing foreign investment, nor by the increase of GDP per capita from $450 to $800 between 2003 and 2007, according to the IMF’s World Economic Outlook( Spinoza et al, 2007).
First of all, whatever the level of satisfaction of the Bretton Woods institutions with the macro-economic results and the reforms during the second mandate of the departing President, a degree of circumspection is in order. In reality, the Nigerian elites, concerned to retain their grip on the clientist system, even whilst acceding to foreign demands.
The Nigerian state, still remains congenitally weak as it is, has difficulty projecting its authority, in the face of cultural diversity (almost 250 ethnic groups) a surface area twice that of France, demographic centres of gravity pulling against each other, a weak fiscal position and corrupt political elites which are very different from each other even if forced to work together.
The departure of Michelin and many companies from the country says more about the reality there than statistics can. Confronted by a greedy garrisoned military political class which has turned corruption into a standard procedure, businesses – local or otherwise– endure power cuts almost on a regular basis, which affect production. In parallel, and in contrast to the CFA zone, the independence of the Nigerian currency means that both foreign investors and the local middle classes continually risk finding the assets they hold in Nairas becoming less valuable (Spinoza et al, 2007). The modern image of Abuja demonstrates only that a lot of petro-dollars can finance a shop window disguising the economic reality behind. (Likewise, Abidjan demonstrates how this type of Manhattan built on an economy of rent can fall apart).
By an exquisite irony, Abuja suffered oil shortages in January 2007 and January 2012. That said, these particular weaknesses in the Nigerian economy, often exacerbated by the sabotage of refineries to facilitate the import of petrochemicals from abroad, should not cause us to overlook the dynamism of the economic centres of North and South alike (Spinoza et al, 2007).
Clearly, what Nigeria needs is structural diversification of the economy. The country is grossly underdeveloped. It fell from 151st in the UNDP Human Development Index in 2004 to 159th in 2006, and its population living in poverty doubled, to 80%, between 1981 and 2012. But there is very little progress being made in this direction. There seems no other explanation than that the political class, irrationally from its perspective, sees a diversification of the economy as too risky.
Such an economy would start to produce a middle class focused around businessmen. These developments would damage the existing elites, whose power is based on tight allegiances depending on the manipulation of a flexible combination of public and private measures – laws and regulations, institutions, finance and oil companies – and developing in step with globalization.
 The ‘garrison’ process of politics and democratic election and their implications for the consolidation of democracy in Nigeria, is quite unwholesome to our national democratic savvy.  As Shola (2007) argued that garrisoned electoral processes represent a powerful source of democratic instability that can threaten the consolidation of democracy. He illustrates these processes and concludes that much will, however, depend on how ‘winners’ and ‘losers’ manage their successes and failures, respectively. The greatest threats to the consolidation of democracy in the aftermath of the garrisoned military politics and elections in Nigeria relate to the handling of post-election issues, especially election petitions, tribunals and court processes, by all stakeholders in the democratization process. So far, he suggested that these issues must be properly handled by all affected parties, raising hopes of the possibility of mitigating potential pitfalls. Sustained efforts are required both to ensure that these democratic gains endure and in order to avoid democratic regression, potentially leading to military post-warlordism intervention and the perpetual continuation of garrison democracy in Nigeria.

Jibo Nura, is lifetime member, West African Research Association (WARA), African Studies Centre, Boston State University, United States. E-mail: jibonura@yahoo.com

5
Realistically, even the Bank’s bailout plan that he did, was actually faulty. As Irvine  Sprague, a former director of the FDIC writes in his book “ Bailout”, “In a bailout, the bank does not close, and everyone-insured or not –is fully protected, except management which is fired and stockholders who retain only great diluted value in their holdings. Such privileged treatment as accorded by the FDIC only benefits an elect few in the economy”. This means bailouts are only for the rich. Sanusi should know that if, for example, JP Morgan Chase or Citibank gets in trouble in the US., the tax payers in the State pay for all losses. This means the $250,000 limit does not apply. In a nutshell, what the CBN did is just a carbon copy of the FDIC in a simple term, which is a smoke screen protecting the biggest banks. This also means if a bank gets caught, the government bails it out with tax payers money the way Sanusi Lamido did with the likes of Oceanic and Intercontinental Banks. What an economic “guru”?
The CBN governor should therefore go beyond economic polemics and rhetoric in what  appears to be his attempt at pleasing IMF and World Bank-institutions that he was vehemently opposed to not long ago. It is indeed mind boggling to see the likes of Sanusi and Okonjo-Iweala who few years ago were heavily opposed to certain IMF and World Bank policies are now disco-dancing to their tunes and lyrics. Sanusi in particular was once attacking these Bretons Institutions, because of their economic policy inequalities in the developing nations. Hear him:
“The struggle against global capital as represented by the unholy trinity of the IMF, the World Bank and Multilateral ‘trade’ organizations as well as that against the entrenched domestic class of contractors, commission agents and corrupt public officers were vicious and thus required extreme measures. Draconian policies are a necessary component of this struggle for transformation and this has been the case with all such epochs in history”.
That was Mallam Sanusi Lamido Sanusi of yesteryears when he was depending “Buharism” in his own version of economic theory and political-economy on July 22, 2002 in Lagos. But shamelessly enough, this same man has today eaten up his own vomit by schematically trying to implement the World Bank’s agenda. That is why he seriously craves for the support of Nigerians to succumb to removal of oil subsidy even when he seems not to understand its real meaning and significance from its originators.
In view of the above therefore, we urge on President Goodluck  Ebele Azikwe Jonathan, Sanusi Lamido Sanusi and Okonjo-Iweala to kindly refer to Joseph Stiglitz, the 2001 Nobel Prize for Economics Laureate  and one of the world’s best known-economists and former Chief Economist at the World Bank, and get well informed about national and international finances, which he (Stiglitz) honestly argued and explained to, especially President Clinton’s government as the Chairman of the Council of Economic advisers. He opined that subsidy removal, “globalization and its discontents”, cannot simply work for the developing nations such as Nigeria. We also urge them to in the spirit of profound camaraderie and sportsmanship revisit this oil subsidy unilateral decision before it consumes all of us.
For Okonjo-Iweala, the Nigeria’s finance Minister, there is lots of lessons that she ought to have learnt from her very senior colleague (Professor Stiglitz) when she was at the World Bank, but she could not do just that. What a waste? She could have learnt from him that subsidy in its real form and structure, is always given and provided by any apex government to cushion the economic hardship of its citizenry. Definitively, she could have known from Joseph Stiglitz’s school of thought the multinational institutions’ policies and what they want to achieve as a faith accompli in developing countries such as Nigeria. A decade after the Uruguay Round, more than two-thirds of farm income in Norway and Switzerland came from subsidies, more than half in Japan, and one-third in the EU. For some crops, like sugar and rice (not even oil), the subsidies amounted to as much as 80 percent of farm income. The aggregate agricultural subsidies of the United States, EU and Japan, for example (including hidden subsidies such as on water), if they do not actually exceed the total income of sub-Saharan Africa, amount to at least 75 percent of the region’s income, making it almost impossible for African farmers to compete in world markets. The average European cow, gets a subsidy of $2 a day (the World Bank measure of poverty), 80 percent of the people living in Nigeria today live on less than that. This means it is better to be a cow in Europe than to be a poor person in a developing country like Nigeria.
The Burkinabe Farmer, for example, lives in his country with an average annual income of just over $250. He ekes a living on small plots of semi-arid land; there is no irrigation, and he is too poor to afford fertilizer, a tractor, or high-quality seeds, unlike his colleagues in California that can farm a huge tract of hundreds of acres, using all the technology of modern farming: tractors, high grade seeds, fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides etc. The most striking difference here is subsidy on irrigation water (not even oil) by the U.S government, which allows the California cotton Farmer to farm very well, because the water he uses to irrigate land is in effect highly subsidized. He pays for less for it than he would in a competitive market. But even with the water subsidy, even with all of his other advantages, the California Farmer simply couldn’t compete in a fair global marketplace were it not for further direct government subsidies that provide half or more of his income. Without these subsidies, it would not pay for the United States to produce cotton; with them, the United States is, as we have seen, the world’s largest cotton exporter. And this brings us to the end of this discourse on oil subsidy removal using Elton Mayo’s Hawthorne studies framework that the incentive plan on subsidy given to people if removed in effect; it affects their general output, socio-economic wellbeing and standards, because it is the key determinants of individual’s welfare and behavior.
Conclusion:
The Federal Government of Nigeria should therefore as a matter of national interest urgently reverse the decision on oil subsidy removal. The money it claims to be losing on oil subsidy each year, can be obtained by cutting the salaries of all the political appointees and office holders by 50 percent not by 25 percent as meagerly asserted by President Jonathan in his address to the nation yesterday night. These political appointees, starting from local government councilors, to chairmen, state and federal rep. members, senators, ambassadors, ministers, governors, vice president and president, should be reduced their salaries by half if at all we are serious about nation building.  The unnecessary committee sitting allowances given to House Committees should all be remitted back to government coffers for Project Nigeria. Once this is done, we can invite the Sanusis and Okonjo-Iwealas to reevaluate and calculate the national income index and see if the N 1 trillion that they said we are losing on subsidy cannot emerge out of those political appointees spending jamboree.  There is no conflict whatsoever between this and action committed to meaningful goals. The two are inseparable. We should intellectually, but ideologically challenge President Jonathan administration, his cohorts and economic think-tanks such as Okonjo-Iweala, Sanusi Lamido  and Diezani by collectively letting them know that there are teaming fellow Nigerians   who are out there that only manage to eat once a day.  We must remind them anytime that because of their stern and inhuman actions on oil subsidy, there are lots of children who will drop out of school, because their parents can no longer afford to send them to study anymore.  Indeed, we must tell them that the decision they took, maliciously means afflicting more hardship and suffering to ordinary Nigerians.  We have no choice than to tell them that we can no longer confide in them that they will do something tangible with the oil subsidy money trillions that they said will save for the development of Nigeria. We feel nothing will be done with the money other than to be shared again by government top echelons in their business as usual. As we put our hands on deck to salvage Nigeria, we shall pursue our own cause with personal temerity, grandeur and passion. What is wrong, useless and should be avoided is what honourable Dr. Yusufu Bala Usman once referred to as hot-air jargon what is popularly called in Hausa as Dogon Turanci.
Jibo Nura (Quantity Surveyor), is lifetime Member, West African Research Association (WARA), African Studies Centre, Boston University, United States. He can be reached at: jibonura@yahoo.com.









References:
Adam, S. (1790). “An enquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations”, London
Elton, M.  (1927). “The Hawthorne studies”, Cicero, Illinois, Italy
Farooq, K. (2011). “The biggest scandal on oil subsidy removal”, Weekly Trust ltd., Abuja, Nigeria
Gabriel, E. (2011). “Subsidy removal: Nigeria to face grave consequences if…”, www.vanguardngr.com (accessed on 27:11:2011:1)
Henri, F.  (1925). “Neoclassical economic theories”, France: 1-5
Izielen, A.I. (2012). “The real cost of Nigeria’s petrol Vs. the Fraud Called Subsidy”, Leadership ltd., Abuja, Nigeria; 58
Joseph, S. (2007). “Making Globalization Work”, Penguin, Great Britain: 1-358
Majek, A. (2012). Why the Removal of Fuel Subsidy cannot be justified”, www. facebook.com (accessed on 07:01: 2012: 3)
Nuruddeeen M.A. (2012). “Federal depletes stabilization account”, Daily Trust, Abuja, Nigeria
Robert, K. (2009). “Rich Dad’s Conspiracy of the Rich: The 8 New Rules of Money”. Hatchette Group Inc., U.S.A: 91
Sanusi, L.S. (2011). “Retain subsidy and perish, foreign reserves depleted”, www.vanguard.ngr.com (accessed on: 23:11: 2011:1)
Sanusi, L.S. (2002). “Buharism: Economic theory and political-economy”, Kanoonline.com (accessed on 07:01:2012: 1-2)
Tamuno, D.W.  (2011). “Analysis on oil subsidy”, www.facebook.com (accessed on 5:01:12: 1-2
Yusuf, B. (1980). “For the liberation of Nigeria”, Villiers ltd., London, England: 1-292
www.businessnews.com (accessed on 06:01:2012: 1)

6
OF OIL SUBSIDY REMOVAL, JONATHAN, SANUSI LAMIDO, OKONJO-IWEALA AND THE COLLAPSE OF NIGERIAN ECONOMY
This piece is dedicated to late Dr. Sabo Bako, political science philosopher and international political-economy scholar who taught me the basics of Nigerian political-economy at Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, and to Professor Stephen Hawking who celebrates his 70th birthday today  
08/01/2012
BY
JIBO NURA
WEST AFRICAN RESEARCH ASSOCIATION, AFRICAN STUDIES CENTRE, BOSTON UNIVERSITY,
 UNITED STATES
Introduction:
The euphoria on oil subsidy removal on January 1, 2012 by President Ebele Jonathan and his economic henchmen such as Sanusi Lamido Sanusi, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala and co. explains the hypothesis and theoretical nature of an expensive decision, which was taken out of sheer economic anxiety that if Nigerians continue to enjoy oil price relief, the nation’s economy will no doubt perish, because its foreign reserves had been depleted.
Be that as it may, but one thing remains clear. Nigerians are tired and increasingly becoming impatient on President Jonathan’s oil subsidy removal vagueness, verbosity and waffle. We are very seriously fed up with Sanusism and Okonjoism gospel singing on improving our nation’s economy based on gobbledygook and apocalyptic certiorari.   In a country of imperfect economic competition  where microscopic few noisy individuals like Labaran Maku (President Jonathan’s Minister of Information), can come out boldly and tell us that there is no harm in the fire brigade decision of removal of oil subsidy, then it means an individual economic unit or group of  individuals in Nigeria can decide to pursue their own self interest based on  unilateral actions and attitudes that are heavily lopsided with aggrandizement and sheer arrogance, which are at a complete variance  with the overall wellbeing of Nigerian society as a whole.
Indeed, the economic assumption(s) behind the President’s anxious decision on this oil subsidy of a thing finds a place in the lack of knowledge and understanding of Human Relations Approach (HRA) to leadership management and practice. It exposes an inertia in fuel capital management, which is realistically and logically not in tandem with mechanistic theories and modus operandi of the classical and scientific management school.
The thrust of our analysis today will therefore be centred on the behavioural viewpoint which states that people deserve to be looked at as central concern of any organized activity, which must be guided by democratic and participative management. We shall achieve this based on three (3) subsidization philosophies and economic frameworks as mathematically deduced by Tamuno David West (2011), Izielen Agbon Izielen (2012) and Elton Mayo (1927). As we explain these philosophies of subsidization and national humanization approach that were since advocated by scholars and authorities such as Mary Parker Follet, Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, Charles Handy and Dale Carnegie, there is the need to take into cognizance the monumental national economic deficiencies that were superficially and terribly postulated by Mr. and Mrs. Know-all (Sanusi Lamido Sanusi and Okonjo-Iweala). We shall eventually look at the superficiality and setbacks in Sunusism economic model that have neglected the role of people in an informal economy who should be viewed as central focus to productivity, welfare and negotiation. But before we go further there is also the need to state categorically that one-sided calculation on national economy according to Adam Smith (1776) and Henri Fayol (1925), is directly proportional to inefficiency, and do not guarantee good job performance and satisfaction, instead success depends on people and their fair treatment as a community.
Oil subsidy removal myth and reality:
A common cause of internal conflict in a nation is the absence of definite responsibilities where leaders do not clearly understand their roles and limitations. To avoid this conflict, leaders must be ready to at any point in time design and boldly outline their duties and responsibilities to the citizenry. For Jonathan, Sanusi Lamido and Okonjo-Iweala to take a stringent measures and decision on the entire nation on oil subsidy removal with total disregard to decorum by playing with our psyche and economic knowledge, is indeed worrisome.  They deliberately shied away from explaining to us the way the nation’s foreign reserve is being depleted within 8 months by Jonathan and his political puppets. An investigative report in the Daily Trust stable of Thursday, January 5, 2012 revealed that the Federal Government under Goodluck Jonathan has unpatriotically and irresponsibly depleted the stabilization account where he (Jonathan) single-handedly withdrew in different installments N114 billion from September 2010 to May 2011. Sadly, most of these funds were mischievously used for car finances scheme, so-called police peace keeping mission in Haiti (the most corrupt country in the world now assisted by another corrupt government), and in financing the terrible INEC elections activities that was presided by Prof Jega to mention but a few.  These monies were 100% withdrawn and spent by Jonathan government, but the question is: what impact and/or improvement have we seen in the nation’s economy let alone Nigerian politics?
When Sanusi Lamido Sanusi was busy playing to the gallery on his so-called exposition of the spending of 25% of the national income on payments of salaries and other expenditure for Nigerian Senators and Rep Members, what advice has he given Mr. President on the way to tackle the spending spree in the National Assembly? The cardinal question here is: why can’t Sanusi, Okonjo-Iweala and the talkative Labaran Maku come out and explain in plain language how the nation’s external reserve was callously depleted instead of dilly-dallying and disco-dancing over oil subsidy just to cause confusion by putting discomfort in the minds of ordinary Nigerians?
The irony is: when Sanusi boldly took that step of unraveling the financial spending in the National Assembly, immediately they retaliated in defense, he was completely silenced, because he wanted to save his job. That was why he could not take that same bold step again to candidly advice President Jonathan to revisit and cut-down the salaries of those Senators and Rep. Members. What balderdash!
The same Sanusi deliberately refused to tell us the whys, hows and whats of spending the following monies from our external reserve by Jonathan administration.
•   Loan to fund INEC-N87.70 billion
•   Funding of National Council on Finance and Economic Development (NACOFED) activities-N255.75 million
•   Release to Federation Account Allocation Committee(FAAC) Secretariat for the year 2004-N31 million
•   NACOFED conference of 2004-N25.70 million
•   Loan to FGN 2006 Car Scheme-N4.58 billion
•   Loan to IG-N308 million
•   Loan to FGN Car Scheme in paramilitary agencies-N10.76 billion
•   Loan to FGN pioneer Car Scheme-N2.8 billion
•   Advance to FGN to meet shortfall in revenue-N985 million
(Source: Daily Trust Stable, January, 5, 2012)
In the 2012 budget the following monies are included therein and will be 100% spent by the end of this year. We therefore wish to ask Mr. President why the following monies cannot be used to save the nation’s economy from collapsing if at all he and his economic cronies are ready to salvage Nigerians.
•   N280 million-for the purchase of two bullet proof vehicles-claiming that the current one is too old. As Majek Adega (a writer) challenged elsewhere i.e. why the President and his V.P can’t continue to drive the existing ones until the economy gets better?
•   N125 million-for the purchase of 5 Mercedes Benz Salon Cars.
•   N100 million-for the purchase of 10 assorted SUVs at N10 million each.
•   N76 million-renovation of 3 of Aso Rock’s Gates.
•   N152 million-extension and renovation of GEJ’ family wing of the presidential villa.
•   N385 million-reclamation of land at the state house medical centre.
•   N230 million-extension and renovation of the V.P’s guest house. This same project according to Adega gulped N400 million in the 2011 budget.
•   N37 million-for the renovation of the presidential chalet at Nnamdi Azikwe International Airport. In 2011, N48 million was spent on the same project.
•   N1 billion-for food allowance for the President and his V.P in 2012.
•   N45 million-purchase of kitchen equipment.
•   N45 million-president’s Jonathan’s 2012 Newspaper budget.
(Source: Majek Adega, “Why the Removal of Fuel Subsidy cannot be justified”, Facebook, Page 1).
Summing up the above figures, we think our CBN Governor can easily calculate for us how we can make-up the nation’s treasury without much ado about oil subsidy removal. But one fact remains: he is not seeing along our line of thinking. He instead, prefers to score cheap economic point by focusing on subsidy; trying very hard to prove that he is a Banker of international repute. He is always eager and enthusiastic to be aired on radio so that he convinces us on how “Nigeria lost $16 billion on subsidy last year”. He has been parambulating that the total amount of money in the foreign reserves was $200,000 short of the spent sum.
May be, one should at this point remind Jonathan and Sanusi and their chief financial Architect, Okonjo-Iweala by throwing them a double-decker question i.e. where were they when the PDP government as we heard from El-rufa’i spent $200 billion from 1999-2007 on elections and campaigns? Where were the Sanusis, Iwealas and Labarans when all these colossal amount of petro-dollars were hypocritically spent by the PDP government-the so-called ruling party in Nigeria?
Now let us quickly flash back to our earlier assertions so that we buttress our analysis with Tamuno David West and Izielen Agbon Izielen practical calculations on how much a litre of petrol is supposed to be sold to every Nigerian in every filling station across the country.
Tamuno David West’s mathematical petrol production and functional approach:
a.   1 barrel of Crude Oil =42 Gallons or 159 litres in some cases 168 litres due to variance in barrel size and capacity. The 42 Gallons of petroleum products consists of 4 Gallons of LPG, 9.5 Gallons of Gasoline, 10 Gallons of Diesel, 4 Gallons of Jet Fuel/ Kerosene, 2.5 Gallons of Fuel oil and 5 Gallons of Bottoms.
b.   Nigerian Refineries (4 installed capacity at Kaduna, Warri and Portharcourt) =445,000 barrels per day.
c.   Actual refineries capacity due to ageing equipment and obsolescence=30-38.2% efficiency =133,500-170,000 barrels per day out of which we get throughput refined products of about 13.26 million litres of petrol, 6.8 million litres of diesel and 2.72 million litres of Kerosene/ Jet Fuel, which are all not enough to cater for the total national demand. This obliged us to send our remaining crude oil of about 275,000 barrels per day to be refined abroad and imported back into the country for sale. But even at the level of deterioration of Nigeria’s refineries we get at least 133, 500 barrels= 21.20 million litres.
d.   Local required consumption (F.O.S) = 12 million litres. This means with the moribund status quo of our national refineries, we can actually cater for our local consumption since we just need 12 million litres out of which we have 9.20 million litres in excess.
Now let us look at the David West’s deduction formula on structure of refining the crude oil i.e. Qua Iboe Crude Oil production cost.
e.    Findings/development=$3.50 per barrel
Production cost= $1.50 per barrel
Refining cost= $12.60 per barrel
Pipeline/ transportation= $1.50 per barrel
Distribution/ bridging fund margins=$15.69, which comprises of retailers, transporters, dealers, bridging funds and other administrative charges.
f.   True cost of 1 litre of petroleum anywhere in Nigeria  
= $3.50+$1.50+$12.60+$1.50+$15.69=$34.79 per barrel
1 litre cost = $34.79÷159 litres = $0.219.
Naira equivalent of $0.219= 0.219x N160= N35.04k
Add V.A.T of N5.00= N35.04+N5.00= N40.04k
This N40.04k as calculated by Professor David West, former Nigeria’s petroleum Minister, is actually what every Nigerian who cares to fuel or oil his vehicle is supposed to pay at every filling station in Nigeria. So where is the subsidy that Jonathan, Sanusi Lamido, Okonjo-Iweala and co. are terribly disturbing us about? Who then is unrealistic? Who then is ignorant and nonacademic with national economic statistics?
Indeed, the issue is: even the 275,000 barrels per day that we send daily abroad, we give it out to commodity traders, which are also divided as follows:
a.   90,000 barrels per day goes to Duke Oil.
b.   60,000 barrels per day goes to Trafigura (Puma Energy)- a company that conspired against the Ivorien citizens health status by dumping a hazardous petroleum substance on Ivorian soil. This Trafigura was caught in barbarous throwing away of toxic petroleum waste on Cote d’Ivoire’s soil, which stripped their nutritious land bare, killed scores of people and sickened thousands of  Ivorien citizens.  The dumping of the deleterious petroleum residue, according to Kperogi was done on July 2, 2006. An Amsterdam court that found the company guilty had to fine it 1 million Euros. But regrettably, the Nigerian government feels there is nothing wrong in engaging this fraudulent Trafigura to refine its crude oil in a crookest manner. Please see Farooq Kperogi’s analysis on Trafigura in his Weekly Trust Column of Saturday, November 5, 2011 i.e. “Notes from Atlanta”.
c.   Another 60,000 barrels per day goes to Societe Ivorienne de Refinage (SIR) in Abidjan, Ivory Coast.
d.   65,000 barrels per day goes to (unknown sources) in a swap deal.
Now let us refer to the 2nd theoretical framework as deduced by the mathematical Izielen Agbon Izielen on swapped petroleum products before we finally draw an inference after comparing it with Tamuno David West’s petrol production approach.


Izielen Agbon Izielen mathematical method:
If the landing cost of a litre of petrol is N 123.32 and the distribution margin is N15.49 according to the Jonathan’s government, it means: 1 litre =N123.32+N15.49= N138.81, which is equivalent to $3.54 per Gallon=$ 148.54 per barrel.
a.   Technically, 1 barrel of Nigerian Crude Oil= 6.6% volume yield of AGO
20.70% Gasoline
9.50% Kerosene/ Jet Fuel
30.60% Diesel
32.60% Fuel Oil/ Bottoms
The above percentages according Izielen are what we will get when our crude is fully refined.
Now using the Izielen’s netback calculation method, domestic prices are obtained thus:
b.   AGO=$174.48 per barrel
Gasoline (PMS or Petrol) =$69.55 per barrel
Diesel Oil=$172.22 per barrel
Kerosene= $53.50 per barrel
Fuel Oil= $129.68 per barrel
Substituting the government imported PMS prices of $148.54 and $142. 32 per barrel for the domestic price of petrol/gasoline, gross product revenue per swapped barrel =
$174.48x 0.066+$148.54x0.207+$172.22x0.306+$53.50x0.095+$129.68x0.326=$45.89
When we substitute the above figure from the government price we obtain the exact international cost as thus:
$$148.54-$45.89=$102.65= International cost of a barrel of Nigerian crude oil=$102.65 per barrel.
Also substituting the international cost of a barrel of Nigerian crude oil, which is ($102.65 per barrel) from the government figure as obtained inter alia, we get the net cost of imported swapped petroleum products to Nigerian consumers.
c.   $142.32-$102.65=$39.67 per barrel of swapped crude oil, which is a net of N39.91 per barrel obtained thus: $39.67÷159 litres=.$0.249x N160 Naira equivalent=N39.91. We add V.A.T of N5.00 =N39.91+N5.00= N44.91 of petrol per litre. Again according to the Izielen’s method, this is also a fair price of petrol in any filling station in Nigeria.
Now comparing Izielen’s N44.91 per litre with Tamuno David West’s N40.04 as obtained elsewhere in this analysis, we add the 2 figures together and take the average i.e.
N44.91+N40.04=N84.95÷2= N42.48≈N42 per litre.
Therefore, the final cost of 1 litre of petrol, which is supposed to be sold to everybody in Nigeria that wants to buy fuel is N42 not the former government price of N65 per litre and definitely not at the extra-large and hypothetical figure of N141 per litre. The real cost of petrol is statistically obtained from this comparative analysis of the results of two authoritative mathematical connotations, which gives out our oil price per litre in Nigeria as N42. Who then is unrealistic?
This shows how some people with very little knowledge in economics can brag themselves as scholars and hence can ignore the views of professors and authorities that are more knowledgeable than them in the area of Nigeria’s political-economy.
Therefore, the Jonathan-Sanusi-Okonjo-Iweala’s version of oil subsidy removal far “surpassed” our normal understanding, because theirs, is a complete mismatch of our own simplistic definition. That is why one may wish to ask Sanusi his own definition and meaning of subsidy, particularly when he bailed out those five Banks where he single-handedly injected over N10 billion to rescue them out of their operational doldrums. He could have chosen not to do just that so that the Banks could die down naturally, but he used tax payers’ money and relieved them up. Is it not a subsidy that he gave to the Banks to free them from their comatose situation?

7
Nigeria- a tale of squandered opportunities and extinguished hopes (1)
By
Jibo Nura
West African Research Association (WARA), Boston University, United States
E-mail: jibonura@yahoo.com

 A long time ago, there was a friend of mine whose name was Lawan. He lived in a nearby village neighborhood called ‘Burmanawa, which is just few kilometers away from my hometown. Lawan, ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa as we then popularly call him, was a very optimistic human being who’s always enthusiastic about the local happenings in Nigeria.  He liked talking much good things that he expects to happen to his country by making all sort of noise without leaving us (his classmates) to say a word until he reaches conclusion over what he wanted us to hear. This was not only ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa’s problem. His biggest problem was showing dislike and absolute hatred to reading his Books during our end of term examination. He once told me that “Nura, what I like best in my leisure time is to climb tree and be watching my dad cows grazing while I am singing and whistling my song- In yarare yare yarare! Inyarare yare!! Inyarare yare yarare inyare yare!!!”
Lawan loved so much singing and whistling, cheerfully in the bush! 
One day, we were sitting on a mat under a tree close to our chemistry lab, discussing about what we want and like to become when we graduate from school, and the development and progress we intend to provide for Nigeria by improving the lots in our leaders. Bello Makama, “Bellollah” as he nicknamed himself, another interesting character from our class that I held dear openly told us his ambition of wanting to become a medical doctor of international repute someday. He said he believed, one day, he would turn Nigeria’s health sector into a new leaf. But fatefully, this ambitious medical doctor-to-be young man, is today lost to University of Reading, United Kingdom as full blown PhD holder in chemistry! The last time I spoke with him was when I was trying to seek his advice on whether I should pack my things and leave Nigeria for good because of what I see that will sooner or later turn and push the country’s sick political leadership and its demoralizing economy to brinkmanship, acrobatics and summersaults.   
 Therefore, the three (3) of us, that is, Bello, ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa and I were a combination of charm, stubbornness and bizarre hard work at Kafin Hausa Science Secondary School. In fact, I and Bello did most of our school errands and academic exercises, lessons and readings together. There was a day, I and Bello were improvising in happiness before the period of our mathematics teacher, Malam Idrissa Shayya, whom we nicknamed “Pla-ta-ned”, because of his lack of good command of English language that more often made him committed so many pronunciation errors by mixing Fs and Ps, which is one common problem with average English speaking northerners. Incidentally, that very day, Mallam Shayya committed a serious pronunciation blunder while teaching us a lesson on “frustum of a cone” where he proudly and loudly said “Class, I am not going to write to you on black board today! Everybody should get ready for dictation”. Then, we were all keen and listening to what Mallam Shayya is going to say. He therefore hurriedly said, “A paper is Pla-ta-ned…” instead of pronouncing it correctly as “A paper is flattened…” It  was after his wrong pronunciation of the word “Flattened” that I immediately looked up and signaled Bello with my eyes and gently lowered my head and whispered before his ears that “Kai, Mallam fa ya kona Ingila da Ingilawa”, meaning: Mallam Shayya, the teacher, has grammatically burnt England and English people. Bello laughed and said “O boy! It is true; this man has really dealt with White House!” As soon as we finished our on-the-spot gossip on Shayya, the man spotted us, because he somehow heard what we said over his grammatical slip-up. He then furiously abused us by saying all of us should “go out of the class!”
Well, the rest is now history. As far as I could recall, since we left school, I never know where our well groomed mathematical, but half-baked English teacher is.  It was a couple of  days after the Shayya drama that all of us converged  under that tree listening to the ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa’s  ferry-tales, which Bello disdainfully hates, because he considered them as words of mouth coming out from none other person than that ‘Dan Kauye (villager) whom he jokingly called as ‘Dan fulanin ‘Burmanawa.    In the course of our discussion, I tried to draw their attention by painting them a scenario based on the available observed facts that I “superficially” had, which in my view turned majority of Nigerian leaders into criminals in leadership.  I told ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa and Bello the reasons why most of our leaders not only in Nigeria, but also generally in Africa have dreadfully become crooks in governance.  I then remember telling them about Atgalgano, a greedy criminal guy and gangster of a syndicate that featured prominently in one of the James Hardly Chase crime story Books that Bello was always keen to hear about. Indeed, Atgalgano’s criminal power and intimidation roles, which were given to him by the story maestro of all time (James Hardly Chase), can today be likened to the brainless political “powers” that the likes of IBB, Adamu Chiroma, Dalhatu Tafida, Atiku Abubakar, Aliyu Gusau and co. thought they have, but in the actual sense ended up deceiving themselves and northern Nigeria, because the south has realized that they are nothing other than a bunch of unintelligent political power barbarians that have committed, what I prefer to call political hara-kiri.  And very soon they will be consumed and caught by the nemesis of their lack of political tolerance, leadership maneuverability, personal grandiosity and material accumulation that have today taken them nowhere other than making them become nonentities, because they have done nothing to their people besides mortgaging the future of their sons, daughters and grand-grand children. What a shame?  All they did then and now are surviving under northern patronage by making northern Nigeria people very poor and poverty stricken. They could not provide the desired education and development to the region, because most of them are not properly educated and hence do not know its value and what it can offer to human and capital development.  Well, we forgive them anyway, but I think God will not allow their inactions and karmic retribution that they did to northern Nigeria to go scot free i.e. if they fail to ask His repentance.
 I conclusively told ‘Dan ‘Burmanawa that “look Lawan, don’t ever deceive yourself by living on wishful thinking. Nigeria cannot develop, especially when you look at the way we are going”. But he was then full of “hopes” and his mind was split in two-in between some chains of broken dreams. He laughably said “Nura, my country is the giant of Africa!” But I asked him there and then “are you as giant as you think and behave?” Since that time, the confident Lawan was looking at me as that kind of pessimist who has given up hope over my country’s affairs. But I don’t mind and I did not bother for a second. I still maintained my stance over what I said. I even reiterated to him that my reasons for saying so and holding unto my unhopeful position is based on the unwholesome attitude(s) that I see daily coming out from my fellow countrymen, women, youth and even children. I told him that I once heard a non- Nigerian making horrible comment on his experience about Nigeria.
Moeletsi Mbeki, one of the famous South African Journalists, political analyst and deputy chairman of the South African Institute for International Affairs, was making comparative analysis over African countries and the reason why the continent has a long history effect of chronic underinvestment, which he hinged the blames on the African leaders who after independence thought they would build a modern Africa with thriving industries, universities and hospitals. Mbeki was rather shocked that all these did not happen. He was even terribly shocked when he visited Nigeria where he saw aluminium Smelter Company in the Niger Delta that had been built at an estimated cost of U.S 2.5 billion. As at the time of his visit, Mbeki said the plant had employed 800 people but they could not produce a single kilogram of aluminium!
That place according to him, has a 1 kilometre long conveyer belt, its own port and its own power station linked by a 100 kilometre long gas pipeline to an oil rig, but it had been turned into nothing other than another year long “Yankari” holiday resort for its “highly qualified and highly paid employees”. Years later, the company was sold to a Russian oligarch for a tiny fraction of what it cost to build. Indeed, the Niger Delta Aluminium Smelter Company, in my view, is by far not the saddest story than Ajaokuta Steel Rolling Mill that was mischievously planned to be constructed at Ajaokuta local government area of Kogi State. This Steel Plant that we  have heard of it since we were teenagers, up till today could not “cry out” 0.01 kilogram of iron let alone  produce a single iron bar after multi billions of Naira had been lavishly spent on it by several Nigerian Presidents and their lieutenants.
Ironically, planning for this Steel Rolling Mill started around 1958. Extra-ordinary ministerial agencies were severally established by military Decree No. 9 of April 14, 1971 to focalize efforts required to actualize this Steel Plant in Nigeria.  One of them is the Nigerian Steel Development Authority (NSDA), which signed a “global” contract in 1975 with a Soviet state-owned firm of Tiajpromexport for an “integrated” steel plant of 1.3 million tones of long products to be immediately expanded to 2.6 million tones in flat products while the third phase will raise the annual production to 5.2 million tones. This phase, we were told, its first phase would be completed in 1981. After the Soviet’s hypothesis on this caricature project, European countries also set in with their brand new agendas by advising Nigerian governments to concentrate on agriculture rather than venture into “high-tech” steel business. They therefore began to flood the Federal Government with glossy contracts proposals on alternative technologies for “new-breed” steel plants based on the so-called “Direct Reduction (DR) process”. In 1975 the Federal Government signed a “Turn-Key” contract with a German-Austrian Consortium for a DR plant to be located in Aladja, Warri (Delta Steel Company). It was financed from a guaranteed loan from Deutche Bank. Thereafter, the Federal Government dissolved its NSDA by returning its function to non-technical bureaucrats of a New Ministry of Steel. Then, haphazard activities were embarked upon where lots of inflated shoddy subsidiary projects were helter-skelter chased by government interest groups where the awards given on those subsidiary contracts far exceeded the main contract sum, and the total Ajaokuta Steel contract budget was made even bigger than the national fund could sustain. In the end, this Ajaokuta Steel Rolling wahala was terribly mismanaged by sheer ministerial mishandling than anywhere else in Africa.
Not only this, but I also had to further said to my very good friends –the hopeful Lawan ‘Dan Burmanawa and Bello Makama that “look, the trouble with Nigeria is beyond what you guys think”. I then continued to draw their attention on the high profile corruption that is endemic and deeply embedded in our leaders, which its   effect is today transformed to majority of our people.  I was about to rest my case on convincing them to believe in my analysis on why Nigeria cannot develop that the hopeful Lawan abruptly grabbed my hands and said “Nura, I have understood. I believe you”. We then left the place reminiscing over what we talked. The following day, when we came to class, we were all  laughing over our lengthy discussion, and we all agreed by concluding that the best thing to do  is for all of us to try and pass our senior secondary school examination (SSCE) with flying colours so that we go to abroad and study. And up to this moment, I still remember that time I was writing to University College Swansea in England. I also remember vividly the brochure they sent to me to come over and study Pharmacy in their country. But as destiny will have it, I am today trying my hands and earning a living on cost estimates of buildings and construction projects. And since we left school, I never know where my very good friend Lawan, is. As I heard, he much later joined the Nigeria Police Force. But up to this moment I have my regrets and still feel for him for venturing into what was not exactly what we agreed to do and pursue during our secondary school days at Kafin Hausa.
   Anyway, the rest is history. But what I am trying to say about Nigeria and the nemesis that has caught up with it, is fundamentally caused by the corrupt tendency in virtually all of us (the writer inclusive). For example, despite the false European sounding names and fake addresses in London, Holland and Spain, most of the criminally inspired junk messages that we receive almost on daily basis via electronic mails (E-mails) are sent by Nigerian criminals. As somebody described them elsewhere, the "you are a lottery winner" is the way they operate.  They daily send fake job scam by targeting small Web businesses, placing orders with stolen credit cards. These criminals sometimes ask for payment to bank accounts. That is the way they go about doing 419 to people on internet. My very good friend, Farouq Kperogi who is currently residing in Atlanta, I believe, will one day tell you more about how these crook Nigerians behave, because he did part of his Msc. thesis on internet fraud where he revealed to us that in the United States, most of the internet crimes are believed to be committed by Nigerians who are mostly from the southern enclave. This was recently confirmed by Oprah Winfrey in one of her shows where she had a live interview with United States victims of Nigeria’s internet fraud, which I personally watched live and direct last year. The Americans have since entrenched and named it in their constitution as Nigeria’s advance fee fraud. What a shame? 
Below are pictures of Ajayi Seun and Jascent Nakawunde also known as Tania Bird, Tracey Bird. They are one of the Britain's top six fraud fugitives as identified on the UK Crimestoppers website in July 2011.
                                                                               

For those who are interested in knowing more about these criminals they can log on to: http://www.data-wales.co.uk/nigerian.htm and see more shocking revelations on Nigerians terrible attitude on the net.
I therefore told Bello and ‘Dan Burmanawa that “why I took so much time to explain myself this far is because I am also a Nigerian- ordinary one for that matter. The only difference between I and the criminal Jascent Nakawunde and Seun Ajayi is that I am a proud one who is always ever willing to salvage its situation. And I always pray for Allah to guide me unto the right path so that I can in sha Allah one day make my country great and a better place for our children and those yet unborn, that is, if  given the chance to do just that”.
 I told them that our country in West Africa, as the saying goes, is the world's 6th largest petroleum exporter, but sadly enough it is also the world capital of child trafficking according to the UN report of 2004. As somebody asserted in the July 2005 report in the Christian Science Monitor  that "According to the World Bank, corruption has meant that 80 percent of Nigeria's oil and gas revenues goes to 1 percent of the population, while 85 percent of the country's over 150 million people still live on less than $1 a day. Ironically, Nigerians are the greatest victims of Nigerian fraud crime. An audit report published in 2006 revealed that over a five year period there were huge discrepancies between the oil revenues declared by the Nigerian government and the amounts actually remitted by the international oil companies. Apparently, for at least part of that five year period, a previous president of Nigeria was corruptly the oil minister.
 That is why Moletsi Mbeki while analyzing the fate and plight of Africa he concluded by saying that the fault lies not with the mass of its people but with its rulers-the political elites who contrive to keep their fellow citizens poor while personally enriching themselves.

To be continued.
Jibo Nura, is lifetime member, West African Research Association (WARA), Boston University, United States. He can be reached at: jibonura@yahoo.com.



8
The Committee for Book launch invites launching of a Book titled:
“Redefining Moments for Project Nigeria in the Twenty-First Century”
Written by: Jibo Nura, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Special Guest of Honour:         Guest Speaker:
Prof. Sheikh Abdallah            Sen. Ahmed Mohammed Makarfi, National Assembly,
Hon. Minister of Agriculture,         Abuja, Nig.
Fed. Rep.of Nigeria.
Distinguished Guests of Honour:            Chief Host:
Mr. Dimeji Bankole, Speaker, National Assembly, Abj.Nig.      His Excel. Gov. Patrick Ibrahim Yakowa
Amb. Terrence P. McCulley, U.S Embassy, Abuja, Nig.      Kaduna State Governor.
Amb. Andrew Lloyd, British High Commission, Abuja, Nig.
Amb. Kingsley, J.N Mamabolo, South African High Comm. Abuja, Nig.
Amb. Jean Michel Dumond, French Embassy, Nig.
Chairman of the Occasion:               Book Reviewer:
His Excellency, the Exec.Gov. of Kano State         Dr.Kabiru Mato,Univ.of Abuja, Nig.
Dr. Mal. Ibrahim Shekarau
Chief launchers:                     Royal Father of the Day:
Amb. Buba Marwa, CPC gubernatorial aspirant, Adamawa State      Alh. Dr. Shehu Idris
Alhaji Dahiru Mangal, Katsina State               Emir of Zazzau
Co-launchers:                     Chairman launching Committee:
His Excel.Gov. Danjuma Goje, Gombe State         Sheikh Abdullahi Mogauri, ABU Zaria
His Excel Gov. Sule Lamido, Jigawa State            Date: 19th March 2011
His Excel.Gov. Ibrahim Shehu Shema, Katsina State      Venue: Arewa House Auditorium
His Highness, Alhaji Bashir Abdullahi Albasu, Hakimin Albasu, Katikan Kano Time: 10:00am Prompt
Alhaji.Hamisu Mai Rago, Kaduna State
Alhaji Bashir Dalhatu, Jigawa State.
Hon. Isa Ashiru, National Assembly, Abuja, Nig.

9
chit-chat / Tribute to Professor Sabo Bako(1951-1st December, 2010).
« on: December 23, 2010, 12:28:42 PM »
TRIBUTE TO PROFESSOR SABO BAKO (1951- 1ST DECEMBER 2010)

The 1st December, 2010, will for long remain one of the most shocking moments in the history of my life.  It was the day I received the news of passing away of my mentor, teacher and very close confidant-Professor Sabo Bako. Initially, I could not believe what I was told that Mallam Sabo is dead. When Dr. Agbo Johnson, former Prof Sabo’s PhD student called me from far away Jalingo first thing in the morning, to break the news of his death, I did not believe him. I told Agbo no!  I spoke with Prof on phone 15 hours ago. Dr. Agbo further said “I am telling you Prof is dead, so I heard, but I too did not believe it”.
I abruptly dropped the phone after telling Agbo that “let me confirm whether what you are saying is true”.
I called Adamu, a relative of Prof Sabo Bako who traumatically said “Nura, wallahi gashi an kira ni da gaggawa nazo Zaria, Dr. Sabo Bako ya rasu. Yanzu zamu binne shi”, meaning: I was urgently called to come to Zaria that Dr. Sabo Bako is dead.  I am at Zaria. We are going to bury him now.
 Alas, I could not believe Adamu either that the man I had a telephone conversation with at 3pm, was no longer alive.
Hear us:
Hello sir!
Dr. Sabo: Hello! Nura ne? (Is this Nura?)
Yes sir. Yaya aiki?
Dr. Sabo: Lafiya, kazo Garin ne?
No sir. I called you to clarify that Aisha (your daughter) is going to do her I.T at Freedom Radio Dutse not Radio Jigawa sir as you might have mistaken. Because the Managing Director of Radio Jigawa called me and said you told him that she (Aisha) is on her away to meet him for her I.T. issue.
Dr. Sabo: O.k. I thought it was Radio Jigawa that you submitted her request?
No sir! I told you the MD Radio Jigawa was not around. He travelled out of the country. That is why I suggested Freedom Radio for her since I am together with the Station Manager, Mallam Adamu Ladan.
Dr. Sabo: It’s alright. Call the MD Radio Jigawa ka gaya masa cewa ba wani abu. Ai duk daya ne. Radio Jigawa and Freedom are all the same…uhm. Tun da dai an karbe ta din ai ba komai.  I will also call the MD by myself and explain to him what happened. Kasan na gaya maka shi abokina ne.
O.k sir.
Dr. Sabo: When are you coming to Zaria?
On Sunday sir in sha Allah. Sir, I hope you did not forget about my issue that I said we are going to text governor Lamido?
Dr. Sabo: Oh! Da Allah kayi hakuri. I have forgotten, but let me text him about it now.
O.k. sir.
Dr. Sabo: Or should I leave it till you come?
Yes sir. Zai yi kyau ka bari idan nazo na nuna maka abin sai kasan abin da zaka yi masa text akai.
Dr. Sabo: O.k. sai kazo din. Yaushe kace zaka zo? Sunday?
Yes sir.
Dr. Sabo: Allah ya kawo ka.
Nagode sir.
Well, that was exactly what transpired between me and my Prof. barely 15 hours before he was recalled by Allah-the Almighty. As at that time, if you ask Mallam Sabo( as he’s fondly called by Priscilla, a Café attendant at Burkan Café, opposite north Gate) where we used to spend hours surfing the net , generally looking for research materials and international conferences, he would not  have known that he would die on that day. In fact, the circumstances surrounding his death taught most of us, especially I, ample lesson in life i.e. we are all from Allah and to Him we shall all return, because He is the creator and possessor of all creatures.
However, I found it very difficult to adjust and contain myself within the next two days of his demise. As my first Book reviewer, Prof. Sabo always advised me to be patient and serious about it. He used to guide me and Dr. Agbo to always go on critical thinking (thinking outside the box) whenever we are going to submit any serious academic exercise or work. It is a concept that we cherish very much, because it has to do with devising solutions where there are none. That is why most of our paper abstracts hardly missed selection whenever we submit any to conference panel reviewers.
He fondly used to tell us together with his junior colleagues Mallam Tafida and Dr. Sama’ila not to be involved in garrison democracy. The last time I and him featured prominently was during the Zazzau History Conference that took place on June 10th, 2010 where we presented our papers with pomp and pageantry. Prof Sabo in his usual academic venture talked exhaustibly on the history and politics of Friday Mosques proliferation in Zaria metropolis. His paper, controversial as it might appear to those who don’t know him (knowledge wise), was full of wisdom and meaning, most especially in terms of salvaging our numerous mosques from neglect and collapse. He did a lot of work on religion and politics in Africa. Notably among them is his PhD thesis on Maitatsine saga in Kano. As a review panelist and member, Council for Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) Sabo Bako kept on encouraging me immediately we came back from Dakar in 2006, to pursue research with intellectual vigour and interest. My relationship with him became so intimate and strong after sharing our thoughts one Friday afternoon on nationhood and nation building and on Africa’s position in contemporary world. Since then, there’s nothing-be it conference, symposium, workshop or call for papers that I would bring to him without all of us bending our heads to it until we submit our ideas with happiness.
The next intellectual journey, which he seriously had in mind, was the West African Research Association’s (WARA’s) international conference coming up in June 2011 at Niger Republic where he asked me to develop a panel paper in his office. I did develop it and gave him to study. He agreed to speak on “Leadership and Governance in Muslim Northern Nigeria”. I chose to talk on “Traditional Hausa Architecture, City Walls and Gates in Royal Palaces of Northern Nigeria”.  He asked me to phone Prof Abdallah Uba Adamu at BUK and inform him about the conference to see if he’s interested. I did call Prof Abdallah who happily agreed to join the panel. Both of them called a month ago to confirm whether our panel paper was sent or not. I told them that it was already acknowledged by the organizers.
Indeed, one thing that I know is: even most of his colleagues in the political science are not aware of many of his intellectual engagements. My closeness to him made me understand that he’s a reservoir of knowledge that has written amply about religion and politics in contemporary Africa. Prof Dunmoye (Sabo Bako’s PhD supervisor) groomed him very well. It therefore became very easy for Dr. Sabo to face intellectual giants such as Dr. Bala Usman and his disciples. There was a time I curiously asked him what happened in their yesteryears of intellectual exchange i.e. between the rightists and leftists ideological movement in ABU. He laughably said ai wannan maganar tawuce…hmm. But I still insisted to hear from him. He then told me about his Court experience with Bala Usman, Prof Mahadi and co. He said well, they filed a case against me in Court over clash of ideology(s). The latter sued him to Court and claim damages of almost N2 million Naira. As at that time, the vibrant and dynamic Sabo Bako was not even close to his home country. He was at far away South Africa when Dr. Bala Usman’s disciples made to his house to claim what the Court ruled in their favour. The rest is now history. What is now left is for all of us to pray for Drs. Sabo Bako and Bala Usman for Allah’s mercy, because they have served their country diligently. They all fought their own cause for the liberation of Nigeria and Africa. Both of them shared their knowledge and taught most of us the basic etiquettes of intellectual judo. Indeed, Dr. Bala Usman and Sabo Bako died suddenly and unexpectedly, but their knowledge rewards will in sha Allah be with them in the hereafter. I did not know much about the cause of Dr. Bala Usman’s death. But I was at Zaria the day he passed away. In the case of Dr. Sabo Bako, he died shockingly. In fact, there were a lot of hearsay surrounding the nature and ways he died. Some were saying he was poisoned. Some say he ate food somewhere. Some are even of the opinion that there was something behind it.
All these made me curious to pursue and trace the cause(s) of his death together with his daughter Aisha Sabo Bako at ABUTH, Shika, Zaria. After a thorough search of his “missing folder and prescription card” which was caused by one nurse on duty on 1st of December 2010, I got to find out that the man that certified his death, Dr. Musa Ezekiel, wrote few lines that are not more than a sentence on the card as the cause of Sabo’s death. According to the death certificate, he died of acute renal failure (ARF) with hypovolemic shock at 7am. And many things are attributable to the cause(s) of acute renal failure (ARF) with hypovolemic shock.
It could be due to malfunction of the kidneys resulting from any of a number of causes, including infection, trauma, toxins, hemodynamic abnormalities, and autoimmune disease, and often resulting in systemic symptoms, especially edema, hypertension, metabolic acidosis or uremia. In Prof Sabo’s case, it could be due to the inability of his kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes. And since his condition became acute, it’s normally characterized by oliguria and the rapid accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood commonly described by doctors as azotemia. This usually results from hemorrhage, trauma, burn, toxic injury to the kidney, acute pyclonephritis or glumerulonephritis, or lower urinary tract obstruction. Many forms of acute renal failure are reversible after the underlying cause has been identified. In Prof Sabo Bako’s case, it could be a renal failure from sudden onset, such as from physical trauma, infection, inflammation or toxicity. Three types of ARF are distinguished: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow, such as with hypovolemic shock or congestive heart failure; intrarenal, associated with disease of the renal parenchyma, such as tubulointerstitial nephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, or nephrotoxicity; and postrenal, resulting from obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys. Dr. Sabo Bako can be said to have died as a result of abrupt decline in renal function, triggered by various processes-e.g. sepsis, shock, trauma, kidney stones and drug toxicity, substance of abuse, toxins or iodinated radiocontrast.
The hypovolemic shock in him could be due to physical collapse and prostration, which might be as a result of low blood pressure, thread pulse, clammy skin, tachycardia, rapid breathing, and reduced urinary output. Usually, if there is an associated blood loss, it may stem from gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, internal or external hemorrhage. But in his case, there was nothing like massive blood loss externally. It therefore could be due to excessive reduction of intravascular plasma volume and body fluids, because I was told that he vomited five (5) times before he passed away. And disorders that may cause hypovolemic shock are dehydration from excessive perspiration, severe diarrhea and protracted vomiting. Others are intestinal obstruction, peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and severe burns, which deplete body fluids. All these disorders may also not be unconnected with associated effects such as metabolic acidosis with accumulation of lactic acid, irreversible cerebral and renal damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Anyway, all of the above are medical facts that one could attribute to Prof Sabo Bako as the reasons for his sudden demise. But as Muslims, we should know that everything happens for a reason. My close confidant and senior academic “friend” died because Allah said he should die in that manner. And none of us could prevent it from happening. As Allah said, “wa illallahi turja’ul umur”. Who then is going to prevent Dr. Sabo Bako from answering Allah’s call?
Sir, we love you, but Allah loves you the most. Allah yaji kanka da rahma ya kyautata namu karshen. Ameen summa ameen.

Jibo Nura,(Q.S), resides at
No. 135 Magarbi Street, Area BZ., Samaru Main Campus,
ABU Zaria. 08063234772.

10
General Board / Tribute to Professor Sabo Bako(1959 - 1st December, 2010)
« on: December 21, 2010, 09:48:27 PM »
TRIBUTE TO PROFESSOR SABO BAKO (1959- 1ST DECEMBER 2010)

The 1st December, 2010, will for long remain one of the most shocking moments in the history of my life.  It was the day I received the news of passing away of my mentor, teacher and very close confidant-Professor Sabo Bako. Initially, I could not believe what I was told that Mallam Sabo is dead. When Dr. Agbo Johnson, former Prof Sabo’s PhD student called me from far away Jalingo first thing in the morning, to break the news of his death, I did not believe him. I told Agbo no!  I spoke with Prof on phone 15 hours ago. Dr. Agbo further said “I am telling you Prof is dead, so I heard, but I too did not believe it”.
I abruptly dropped the phone after telling Agbo that “let me confirm whether what you are saying is true”.
I called Adamu, a relative of Prof Sabo Bako who traumatically said “Nura, wallahi gashi an kira ni da gaggawa nazo Zaria, Dr. Sabo Bako ya rasu. Yanzu zamu binne shi”, meaning: I was urgently called to come to Zaria that Dr. Sabo Bako is dead.  I am at Zaria. We are going to bury him now.
 Alas, I could not believe Adamu either that the man I had a telephone conversation with at 3pm, was no longer alive.
Hear us:
Hello sir!
Dr. Sabo: Hello! Nura ne? (Is this Nura?)
Yes sir. Yaya aiki?
Dr. Sabo: Lafiya, kazo Garin ne?
No sir. I called you to clarify that Aisha (your daughter) is going to do her I.T at Freedom Radio Dutse not Radio Jigawa sir as you might have mistaken. Because the Managing Director of Radio Jigawa called me and said you told him that she (Aisha) is on her away to meet him for her I.T. issue.
Dr. Sabo: O.k. I thought it was Radio Jigawa that you submitted her request?
No sir! I told you the MD Radio Jigawa was not around. He travelled out of the country. That is why I suggested Freedom Radio for her since I am together with the Station Manager, Mallam Adamu Ladan.
Dr. Sabo: It’s alright. Call the MD Radio Jigawa ka gaya masa cewa ba wani abu. Ai duk daya ne. Radio Jigawa and Freedom are all the same…uhm. Tun da dai an karbe ta din ai ba komai.  I will also call the MD by myself and explain to him what happened. Kasan na gaya maka shi abokina ne.
O.k sir.
Dr. Sabo: When are you coming to Zaria?
On Sunday sir in sha Allah. Sir, I hope you did not forget about my issue that I said we are going to text governor Lamido?
Dr. Sabo: Oh! Da Allah kayi hakuri. I have forgotten, but let me text him about it now.
O.k. sir.
Dr. Sabo: Or should I leave it till you come?
Yes sir. Zai yi kyau ka bari idan nazo na nuna maka abin sai kasan abin da zaka yi masa text akai.
Dr. Sabo: O.k. sai kazo din. Yaushe kace zaka zo? Sunday?
Yes sir.
Dr. Sabo: Allah ya kawo ka.
Nagode sir.
Well, that was exactly what transpired between me and my Prof. barely 15 hours before he was recalled by Allah-the Almighty. As at that time, if you ask Mallam Sabo( as he’s fondly called by Priscilla, a Café attendant at Burkan Café, opposite north Gate) where we used to spend hours surfing the net , generally looking for research materials and international conferences, he would not  have known that he would die on that day. In fact, the circumstances surrounding his death taught most of us, especially I, ample lesson in life i.e. we are all from Allah and to Him we shall all return, because He is the creator and possessor of all creatures.
However, I found it very difficult to adjust and contain myself within the next two days of his demise. As my first Book reviewer, Prof. Sabo always advised me to be patient and serious about it. He used to guide me and Dr. Agbo to always go on critical thinking (thinking outside the box) whenever we are going to submit any serious academic exercise or work. It is a concept that we cherish very much, because it has to do with devising solutions where there are none. That is why most of our paper abstracts hardly missed selection whenever we submit any to conference panel reviewers.
He fondly used to tell us together with his junior colleagues Mallam Tafida and Dr. Sama’ila not to be involved in garrison democracy. The last time I and him featured prominently was during the Zazzau History Conference that took place on June 10th, 2010 where we presented our papers with pomp and pageantry. Prof Sabo in his usual academic venture talked exhaustibly on the history and politics of Friday Mosques proliferation in Zaria metropolis. His paper, controversial as it might appear to those who don’t know him (knowledge wise), was full of wisdom and meaning, most especially in terms of salvaging our numerous mosques from neglect and collapse. He did a lot of work on religion and politics in Africa. Notably among them is his PhD thesis on Maitatsine saga in Kano. As a review panelist and member, Council for Development of Social Science Research in Africa (CODESRIA) Sabo Bako kept on encouraging me immediately we came back from Dakar in 2006, to pursue research with intellectual vigour and interest. My relationship with him became so intimate and strong after sharing our thoughts one Friday afternoon on nationhood and nation building and on Africa’s position in contemporary world. Since then, there’s nothing-be it conference, symposium, workshop or call for papers that I would bring to him without all of us bending our heads to it until we submit our ideas with happiness.
The next intellectual journey, which he seriously had in mind, was the West African Research Association’s (WARA’s) international conference coming up in June 2011 at Niger Republic where he asked me to develop a panel paper in his office. I did develop it and gave him to study. He agreed to speak on “Leadership and Governance in Muslim Northern Nigeria”. I chose to talk on “Traditional Hausa Architecture, City Walls and Gates in Royal Palaces of Northern Nigeria”.  He asked me to phone Prof Abdallah Uba Adamu at BUK and inform him about the conference to see if he’s interested. I did call Prof Abdallah who happily agreed to join the panel. Both of them called a month ago to confirm whether our panel paper was sent or not. I told them that it was already acknowledged by the organizers.
Indeed, one thing that I know is: even most of his colleagues in the political science are not aware of many of his intellectual engagements. My closeness to him made me understand that he’s a reservoir of knowledge that has written amply about religion and politics in contemporary Africa. Prof Dunmoye (Sabo Bako’s PhD supervisor) groomed him very well. It therefore became very easy for Dr. Sabo to face intellectual giants such as Dr. Bala Usman and his disciples. There was a time I curiously asked him what happened in their yesteryears of intellectual exchange i.e. between the rightists and leftists ideological movement in ABU. He laughably said ai wannan maganar tawuce…hmm. But I still insisted to hear from him. He then told me about his Court experience with Bala Usman, Prof Mahadi and co. He said well, they filed a case against me in Court over clash of ideology(s). The latter sued him to Court and claim damages of almost N2 million Naira. As at that time, the vibrant and dynamic Sabo Bako was not even close to his home country. He was at far away South Africa when Dr. Bala Usman’s disciples made to his house to claim what the Court ruled in their favour. The rest is now history. What is now left is for all of us to pray for Drs. Sabo Bako and Bala Usman for Allah’s mercy, because they have served their country diligently. They all fought their own cause for the liberation of Nigeria and Africa. Both of them shared their knowledge and taught most of us the basic etiquettes of intellectual judo. Indeed, Dr. Bala Usman and Sabo Bako died suddenly and unexpectedly, but their knowledge rewards will in sha Allah be with them in the hereafter. I did not know much about the cause of Dr. Bala Usman’s death. But I was at Zaria the day he passed away. In the case of Dr. Sabo Bako, he died shockingly. In fact, there were a lot of hearsay surrounding the nature and ways he died. Some were saying he was poisoned. Some say he ate food somewhere. Some are even of the opinion that there was something behind it.
All these made me curious to pursue and trace the cause(s) of his death together with his daughter Aisha Sabo Bako at ABUTH, Shika, Zaria. After a thorough search of his “missing folder and prescription card” which was caused by one nurse on duty on 1st of December 2010, I got to find out that the man that certified his death, Dr. Musa Ezekiel, wrote few lines that are not more than a sentence on the card as the cause of Sabo’s death. According to the death certificate, he died of acute renal failure (ARF) with hypovolemic shock at 7am. And many things are attributable to the cause(s) of acute renal failure (ARF) with hypovolemic shock.
It could be due to malfunction of the kidneys resulting from any of a number of causes, including infection, trauma, toxins, hemodynamic abnormalities, and autoimmune disease, and often resulting in systemic symptoms, especially edema, hypertension, metabolic acidosis or uremia. In Prof Sabo’s case, it could be due to the inability of his kidneys to excrete wastes, concentrate urine, and conserve electrolytes. And since his condition became acute, it’s normally characterized by oliguria and the rapid accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in the blood commonly described by doctors as azotemia. This usually results from hemorrhage, trauma, burn, toxic injury to the kidney, acute pyclonephritis or glumerulonephritis, or lower urinary tract obstruction. Many forms of acute renal failure are reversible after the underlying cause has been identified. In Prof Sabo Bako’s case, it could be a renal failure from sudden onset, such as from physical trauma, infection, inflammation or toxicity. Three types of ARF are distinguished: prerenal, associated with poor systemic perfusion and decreased renal blood flow, such as with hypovolemic shock or congestive heart failure; intrarenal, associated with disease of the renal parenchyma, such as tubulointerstitial nephritis, acute interstitial nephritis, or nephrotoxicity; and postrenal, resulting from obstruction of urine flow out of the kidneys. Dr. Sabo Bako can be said to have died as a result of abrupt decline in renal function, triggered by various processes-e.g. sepsis, shock, trauma, kidney stones and drug toxicity, substance of abuse, toxins or iodinated radiocontrast.
The hypovolemic shock in him could be due to physical collapse and prostration, which might be as a result of low blood pressure, thread pulse, clammy skin, tachycardia, rapid breathing, and reduced urinary output. Usually, if there is an associated blood loss, it may stem from gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, internal or external hemorrhage. But in his case, there was nothing like massive blood loss externally. It therefore could be due to excessive reduction of intravascular plasma volume and body fluids, because I was told that he vomited five (5) times before he passed away. And disorders that may cause hypovolemic shock are dehydration from excessive perspiration, severe diarrhea and protracted vomiting. Others are intestinal obstruction, peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and severe burns, which deplete body fluids. All these disorders may also not be unconnected with associated effects such as metabolic acidosis with accumulation of lactic acid, irreversible cerebral and renal damage and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
Anyway, all of the above are medical facts that one could attribute to Prof Sabo Bako as the reasons for his sudden demise. But as Muslims, we should know that everything happens for a reason. My close confidant and senior academic “friend” died because Allah said he should die in that manner. And none of us could prevent it from happening. As Allah said, “wa illallahi turja’ul umur”. Who then is going to prevent Dr. Sabo Bako from answering Allah’s call?
Sir, we love you, but Allah loves you the most. Allah yaji kanka da rahma ya kyautata namu karshen. Ameen summa ameen.

Jibo Nura,(Q.S), resides at
No. 135 Magarbi Street, Area BZ., Samaru Main Campus,
ABU Zaria. 08063234772.

11
General Board / Book press releases/launch
« on: November 13, 2010, 04:01:50 PM »
Dear All,
It is my pleasure to inform you about my just published Book by Authors Online, United Kingdom(www.authorsonline.co.uk). A copy of the publisher's press releases is hereby shared:

"Redefining Moments for Project Nigeria in The Twenty-First Century
by Jibo Nura

Jibo Nura's pioneering book is a highly readable and original text which highlights in detail the problems faced by Nigeria and her people. Redefining Moments for Project Nigeria in the Twenty-First Century is highly recommended to all that are interested in making Nigeria's project a reality.
Through this collection of essays, Nura provides a panacea on how Nigeria's decadent and dysfunctional socio-economic and political system could be overhauled and transformed for the betterment of Nigerians. 
The consistency of the author’s patriotic passion leaps out at the reader within the opening pages as does his conviction that the Nigerian idyll isn't lost. The fact that Nura is not entangled with an identified political trajectory absolves him of accusations of praise-singing or slander.
Nura has, in this collection, demonstrated that, in spite of the rot in a society which has turned its youths into mere pawns in the game of Nigeria's politics, there is someone who has no price tag. As his essays indicate, over the years he has consistently not only exposed but challenged the bankruptcy of the nation's thieving elites.
With youthful exuberance and dynamism Nura provides answers to the leadership questions raised in his book making it compelling material for students and scholars of good governance, especially in Nigeria.
A sample chapter of Redefining Moments for Project Nigeria in The Twenty-First Century by Jibo Nura is available for viewing at www.authorsonline.co.uk
The author is available for interview and may be contacted at: ???
Book Information
Imprint: Authors OnLine
Published: Nov 2nd 2010

Authors On Line Ltd: 19 The Cinques, Gamlingay, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 3NU, UK.
T: 01767 652005. E: theeditor@authorsonline.co.uk. W: www.authorsonline.co.uk
Available for purchase at www.authorsonline.co.uk
Purchase options: eBook Download Price: £3.95 (Pounds Sterling). PaperBack Purchase Price: UK: £8.99".

A link to the Book's webpage is at : http://www.authorsonline.co.uk/book/980/Redefining_Moments_For_Project_Nigeria_In_The_Twenty-First_Century/

I Look forward to launching it in Nigeria at Arewa House by December or January;depending on when the Book copies are shipped from U.K. The Book's  foreword was written by Prof Abdallah Uba Adamu. It's review by Prof Sabo Bako. Happy reading.
Jibo.


12
General Board / Letter from Bamako, Mali
« on: May 27, 2010, 11:15:25 AM »
Greetings to all,
This is our second day in Bamako. We are here for a meeeting on entrepreneurship and development. D Bamako ppl are quite hospitable and honest, and they are really organizing their country beyond expectation. The Malians are  rebuilding their dynasty after what the French ppl did to them since during the colonial era. Time is no longer on our side, bt one cud have gone to Tumbuktu and see the Islamic historical edifice there. Islam actually, we were told came to Africa via Mali. They were d ppl that extended Islam to Nigeria,Niger rep and other African countries. The Wangarawa ppl originated from Mali and moved on to settle in some part of West Africa.

Even though, there is a glimpse of poverty that can be  seen in average Malians, bt they are very hospitable and honest. We hav a long way to go in Nija dear brothers and sisters. More hospitable also are the Ethiopians. On my way to Bamako via Addis, it was quite felicitous and joyous. In fact, I begin to have a re-think as to whether am not gonna pack my things and settle at Addis for a while. Lafs!!! The Beshale Hotel is indeed a nice place to pass d night . The cuisine and hospitality at Addis since we got down at d airport, was quite astounding. Ethiopian air, one of the best airliners in Africa, is quite remarkable! Guys we really had fun and nice moment! Will be here up to Sunday if we don't get direct flight to Lagos. Otherwise, my exploration journey ends today if I get flight to Lag.


I was very sad to see that these countries are by far not up to Nigeria, but they are living happily and u will see from not a far distance d zeal n committment to nation building. May Allah save Nigeria and Nigerians. Ameen ya Allah.

13
BETWEEN ABU MINYAR AL GADDAFI, DAVID MARK’S MAD MAN COMMENT AND QUEST FOR DISINTEGRATION (II)
By
Jibo Nura
African Climate Change Research Centre
E-mail: jibonura@yahoo.com

Gaddafi, one understands, has no doubt done well for his people. His people fondly call him green in the desert, because he has in place housing, education, healthcare and food for Libyans. He is today considered by many people across the globe as the one and only person that enjoys a reputation amongst many Africans as an experienced and wise Statesman who has been at the forefront of many struggles over the years. Gaddafi has earned the praise of Nelson Mandela and others, and is always a prominent figure in various pan-African organizations such as African Union. Being the recent Ex-Chairman of the Union, Gaddafi once addressed an assembly of African leaders in Ethiopia by telling them that his vision, mission and plan for Africa and Africans “is to continue to insist that our sovereign countries work to achieve the United States of Africa”.
Indeed, for a man with vision like this to be called a “mad man”, it sends signals that those that labeled him as such, are either barmy or have gone wacky about Gaddafi and what he stands for.
What Gaddafi actually tried to explain and likened it to Nigeria’s situation is the partition model of Pakistan, which was born in 1947 where the Muslim minority of predominantly Hindu India agitated for their own homeland under the leadership of Mohammed Ali Jinnah. The Pakistani model was successful, because a state for the Muslims and another state for the Christians became established.
Sadly, those that see Gaddafi’s comment as a taboo to Nigeria were not able to read in between the lines the comparison he was trying make.
 Hear him:
“The painful situation that Nigeria is enduring resembles the situation of the Indian subcontinent before 1947, at the time of the massacres between Hindu and Muslims”.

Therefore, no one is wishing Nigeria a bad omen or perpetual succession on the basis of tribalism or religious intolerance. All of us know that our country of today is really engulfed in sequential crises.  And most of these crises are either religiously inclined, ethnic or sectarian in outlooks. The Shagamu antecedent; Zaki Biam massacres; Kafanchan and Kaduna brutalities; and Kano mayhem are still fresh in memory. But instead of the likes of Senator “honourable” David Alechenu Bonaventure Mark to realistically act and find a lasting solution to our predicaments, they are there in Abuja languishing with Nigeria’s problems that are ought to have been thrown to the dustbin of history. What a shame? There was never a time when people such as Mark are heard over the urgency to bring out a platform or level playing ground in the Senate that will melt-down religious and tribal sentiments in Nigeria if not the unnecessary debate on late ‘Yar adua’s health condition that God Has often brought to rest. May Allah forgive Yar adua and give our ordinary leaders who sit in Ivory towers, the wisdom to lead with zeal, commitment and compassion.  Because, as somebody asserted elsewhere i.e. in Nigeria “Those sitting at the corridor of power debating on issues that are unnecessary, are not really disturbed over the happenings in Nigeria. Perhaps, due to the fact that “non- of their families is being wiped out, non- of their businesses or property got destroyed; non- of their mosques or churches got burnt, they sit comfortably and curse Gaddafi”.
Hence, David Alechenu Bonaventure Mark needs to understand that the patriotism gospel that he lives to preach since the time of his military training, can be dangerous to national development, because when one defends his country and countrymen so blindly, when one sees nothing wrong with his country, when one perceives all criticisms such as Gaddafi’s as destructive rather than constructive, when one subjectively encourages his fellow Nigerians in the Diaspora to talk only about the good aspects of Nigeria; not mindful of its bad sides, one got to step back, hands akimbo and ask the cardinal question: Are all these obsequious defense of one’s country a good omen?
According to Mark’s gospel and judgement, which one begs to disagree, is the double Decker question as to whether love for Nigeria requires  any citizen to always identify with pleasant things about that country and overlook the unpleasant aspects, because every country has only good features?
Indeed, it could be that Mark has not come across the fact that evil always thrive mostly in societies in which a majority of people maintain silence while things go wrong.  And to remain uncritical when things are wrong, according to Levi Obijiofor, a writer, is the deadly way to destroy a country.
Ironically, Alechenu while exposing his naivety and intellectual regicide about Nigeria, commented in the Monday edition of Guardian Newspaper of July 27, 2009 by stating thus “This country is doing well, we are moving in the right direction, but for some people who are running down this country from within and without. A lot of Britons will never go out to criticize their country elsewhere, but a lot of Nigerians go out and start running down our country. Why can’t they go and start another country?”
This, is one of the complex assertions that one can say without any iota of doubt that it is not true. Because, the British citizens do criticize their country in Britain and overseas.  It is just that Mark has gross misconception about Britons, patriotism and national issues criticisms.
Honestly, dogmatic expression of Nigeria’s good qualities is not really a good barometer for gauging someone’s level of patriotism, says Obijiofor in his critical comment on “Mark: Off the mark on patriotism”. It is quite inappropriate for citizens of any country to keep silent or to engage in harangue and praise singing of the political leaders who pilot their country in the wrong direction.
In view of the above therefore, Mr. Alechenu should not look at Gaddafi’s commentary about Nigeria as an act of “madness” or disloyalty. There is nothing more dangerous and damaging of a country’s reputation and socioeconomic development than to gullibly play foul with the citizens by vomiting them words that are hardly chewed. For they will one day make one eat up his/her vomit!
Concluded.
Jibo Nura, a Quantity Surveyor, is Secretary General, African Climate Change Research Centre. Contact Nura at: jibonura@yahoo.com.





14
Not only Wole Soyinka, but also certain notable Nigerians have passed commentaries that are incisive if not more mind boggling than Gaddafi’s sincere counsel, which Mark considers as “madness”. The following people have one way or another called for disintegration of Nigeria.
Hear them:
One: Emeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, the Biafran warlord, and the so-called father of Biafran nationalism stated thus “The Biafran Revolution is the People’s Revolution… Thus, the Biafran Revolution is not dreamt up by elite, it is the will of the people. The people want it… The Biafran revolution is indestructible; it is eternal… the continued  activity of our friends all over the world is  evidence of their continued solidarity with  Biafra and Biafrans are grateful, and look forward to the time when our friends will come to the certain realization that their faith in us has not been misplaced”.
Two: Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, the former Ghanaian President and foremost pan Africanist had this to say inter alia “Nigeria was an artificial State created to suit the needs of early twentieth century imperialism. Nigeria became an entity not because of the affinity of its peoples but because the rivalry between France and Britain at the turn of this century made it necessary for Britain to control the Niger and its hinterland”.
 The question here is:  where was David Mark when Nkrumah was making this statement about Nigeria? Why did Mark not likened Ghaddafi’s “madness” to that of Nkrumah’s?
Three: Mwalimu Julius Nyerere former president of Tanzania also remarked “Tanzania recognizes the state of Biafra as an independent sovereign entity, and as a member of the comity of nations. Only by this act of recognition can we remain true to our conviction that the purpose of society, and of all political organization, is the service of man”.
Four: Professor Claude Ake also had this to say “The gloom will lift. The old order is moribund and those who are trying to sustain it have no chance and no future. What we see now is the end game. A new wholesome reality is already fully formed waiting to be born. The question is not whether it will arrive, but whether we can lessen its birth pangs”.
Five: Shehu Usman Danfodio, the great Islamic revolutionary commented thus “A kingdom can endure with unbelief, but it cannot with injustice”.
Six: Karl Maier, an American writer, in his “This House Has Fallen: Nigeria in Crisis”, observed that Nigeria is “designed by  alien occupiers and abused by army rule for three quarters of its brief life span, the Nigerian State is like a battered and bruised elephant staggering towards an abyss with the ground crumbling under its feet”.
Seven: Chief Jeremiah Obafemi Awolowo, the grandfather of Oodua Nationalism opined thus: “Nigeria is not a nation. It is a mere geographical expression. There are no “Nigerians” in the same sense as there are “English” The word “Nigeria” is merely a distinctive appellation to distinguish those who live within the boundaries of Nigeria and those who do not”.
Eight: Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, former Prime Minister of Nigeria since 1914 also said “The British government has been trying to make Nigeria into one country, but the Nigerian people themselves are historically different in their backgrounds, in their religious belief and customs and do not show themselves any sign of willingness to unite... Nigerian unity is a British invention”.
Nine: Dr. Benjamin Nnamdi Azikwe while composing the Biafran national anthem had this to say “Hail to Biafra, consecrated nation. Oh fatherland, this be our solemn pledge: defending thee shall be a dedication; spilling our blood we’ll count a privilege; the waving standard which emboldens the free shall always be our flag of liberty” Dr. Azikwe further averred his succession thirstiness on dividing Nigeria by saying that “I make this suggestion because it is better for us and for our admirers abroad that we should disintegrate in peace and not in pieces. Should the politicians fail to heed this warning, then I will venture prediction that the experience of Democratic Republic of Congo will be child’s play if it ever comes to our turn to play such a tragic role”.
Ten: General Yakubu Gowon former Nigeria’s youngest President also concluded that  “there is no basis for Nigerian unity”.
Others who made interesting but quite frankly succession remarks about Nigeria are: Prof Tamuno David West-the world renowned virologist who said “I posit that, from the convenient or self-serving Lugardian amalgamation of 1914, till date, we have not significantly succeeded to have national integration as well, as or with pari pasu national cohesion”. Dr. Tunde Bakare also said “In the House of Parliament in England in 1913, Lord Harcourt moved a motion that there would be a marriage between the North (being the husband) and the South (being the wife) and that God bless the union forever…That was what eventually produced what is called the amalgamation of Nigeria on January 1, 1914. We stood in our office as one created by God to dissolve that marriage”. And then Reverend Fr. Mathew Hassan  Kukah, a Catholic priest in his usual spiritual blackmail manner also explained thus “Because the Nigerian state is so fragile we will be faced with these bush fires for some time to come”. So also Hugh Seton Watson, an internationally renowned professor of Russian history at the school of Slavonic and East European studies, University of London had this to say “Practically, even after 40 years after independence there has never really been a Niger-only a shape on a map drawn by alien colonialists notably Lord Lugard who unified the North with the other region in 1914. A truly one Nigeria in social, cultural and emotional term is still a long way off, even a marriage… In Nigeria a war was fought and won, but no nation’s fate was decided”.

And then the US Intelligence report i.e. “While Nigeria’s leaders are locked in a bad marriage that all dislike but dare not leave, there are possibilities that could disrupt the precarious equilibrium in Abuja”.

Fellow Nigerians, one can go on and on but one cardinal question here is: can our “honourable” Senator David Mark come out and publicly apologize to President Gaddafi over his verbal diarrhea and unwholesome remark, or can he also come out now and say loud and clear that these men too are also mad?

15
BETWEEN MU’AMMAR ABU MINYAR AL GADDAFI, DAVID MARK’S MAD MAN COMMENT AND QUEST FOR DISINTEGRATION (1)

By
Jibo Nura
African Climate Change Research Centre (ACCREC)

E-mail: jibonura@yahoo.com
(27-04-10)

 In protest to the turn of events in Nigeria and its leadership style, back in 2003, I wrote a piece titled “Lugard’s dual mandate and leadership experimentalism in Nigeria” (Daily Trust Newspaper, November 19th 2003), in which I made reference to two Libya’s great leaders: King Idris Muhammed el-Mahdi el Sanussi and Mu’ammar Abu Minyar al Gaddafi who stepped down King Idris in a bloodless coup de’e’tat while he was in Kamena Vourla, a Greek resort, for medical treatment.
Mu’ammar Abu Minyar Al Gaddafi therefore becomes a Guide and Brotherly Leader of the First of September Great Revolution of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya. Indeed, elsewhere in that November 2003 write up, I posited that Libyans will ever live to remember these two great national icons because of their immense contribution to the arabisation of Libya.

When Libya, was occupied by the Italians in 1912, its people were subjected to demographic colonization.  They were very close to losing their identity by the time World War II broke out, but King Idris gave them new life, new hope and circumstances. Also, when Libya was taken over by the then slim – 27 year old Gaddafi in 1969, it turned into a haven for anti – western radicals that fight western imperialism. The Italian population in Libya under Gaddafi’s new nationalism policy, almost disappeared after he ordered their expulsion in 1970. Recently, he secured a colossal amount of compensation, from the Italian Premier, Silvio Berlusconi for Italy’s colonial subjugation and unwholesome treatments that were meted on Libyans since 1912. The Italian government apologized to Gaddafi for conceding the bitter truth about the ill-treatment of Libyan people that made them look at imperial powers without impunity. Because of this, Gaddafi based his regime on blend of Arab nationalism where Libyans welfare is discharged through popular democracy and Islamic socialism. This system permitted private control over small companies, but the government controlled the larger ones.
His economic and education liberalization policy imposed some kind of morals, outlawing alcohol, gambling and lottery. And education is now given to any average Libyan free-of-charge. Like previous revolutionary Africanists figures such as Kwameh Nkrumah, Murtala Ramat Muhammad, Nelson Mandela, and Gamel Abdel-Nesser, and the 20th century revolutionaries such as Mao and his little Red Book, Gaddafi outlined his political philosophy in his Green Book to reinforce the ideals of socialist – Arab Islamic State and published it in three volumes in 1975 and 1979.
Sincerity of Intention:
Ghadafi’s love for popular democracy and equal opportunity made him to change Libya’s form of government from a republic to that of “Jamahiriya”, meaning; government of the masses by the masses. He did this to give direct governance through local popular councils and community people. The idea of “General People’s Congress” brought up a new egalitarian philosophy where he followed Gamel Abdel Nesser’s ideology of Pan-Arabism and became a fervent advocate of the unity of all Arab states into one Arab nation. Gaddafi up to today lives with the idea of “Federation of Arab Republics” whereby Libya, Egypt and Syria are supposed to become a pan-Arab State since 1972, but they could not arrive at a common standpoint over the specific terms of the merger and agreement.
His engagement with Chad Republic over Aouzou strip territorial dispute of 1973, was peacefully settled as result of self discipline and respect that he has for the rule of law. Gaddafi withdrew his troops from Chad due to a judgment of the international court of justice issued on 13 February 1994. Even though, he was an ardent supporter of self-styled liberation movements, but Gaddafi’s s support is always looked at with suspicions by western world. They believe he supported rebel movement in West Africa- an approach that as always confuses the international community. That is why his regime was previously implicated by the West in subversion and terrorist activities. The West widely regarded Gaddafi as the principal financier of “international terrorism”. Hence, tension between Libya and the West reached its peak during the Ronald Reagan administration that even tried to overthrow Gaddafi. Reagan administration it was, that labeled Libya as a belligerent rogue State because of its uncompromising stance on Palestinian independence and its support for revolutionary Iran in the 1980-1988 war against Iraq.  In fact, Ronald Reagan was the first person in history that accused Gaddafi by calling him the “Mad dog of the Middle East”.  And this brings us to the main theme of this discourse i.e. the Senate President, David Mark’s uncharitable and disrespectful comment on Gaddafi, which was carried by Nigerian Dailies including Daily Trust of March 18, 2010 where Mark was quoted as saying “President Muammar Gaddafi of Libya is a mad man who should not be taken seriously by any right thinking person”. Mark further said during the debate on a motion over the recent bombings in Warri by the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) that “Gaddafi has said the same thing about Switzerland, England and about any other country. I don’t think he deserves attention at all.  It is not worth it”
Actually, going by the above statements, one can say that Mark and Reagan are entitled to their own opinion(s), but certain level of speech decorum ought to have been exercised by the duo( Mark and Reagan), because freedom of speech and good expression of interest is the life blood of any democratic system (Nigeria and Libya inclusive). Canadian Patrick Wilson, an originator of a television series “The Struggle for Democracy” highlighted that we can only solve our common problems and forging a common destiny by talking to one another politely. He believes that before people can govern themselves they must learn how to respect others’ views, and must be free to intelligently express themselves. It is through this virtue that open exchange of ideas and opinions will allow truth to prevail and win out over falsehood. What one is trying to get at is: the cure for free speech is accepting other peoples’ views by carefully analyzing their more free speech. It may seem a paradox to others, but in the name of  free speech, any sensible democratic system needs not to, most of the time, defend the rights of individuals and groups who themselves advocate such non- democratic policies through utterances. Such people should be seen as those that are repressing free speech.

What Gaddafi said about Nigeria in one’s view, is nothing but the absolute truth, especially when one looks at Nigeria’s current comatose situation where massive killings of innocent souls in the name of religious intolerance, ethnicity and identity struggle become highly unprecedented! 
In fact, we must begin to thank Gaddafi for the personal temerity that he has for at least, expressing his care and concern over the loss of lives and properties that now become the order of the day in Nigeria. One wonders why people such as David Mark was not heard loud and clear on the air when our Muslim and Christian brothers in Jos, Bauchi and Maiduguri lost their lives all in the name of religious dichotomies and unnecessary fight over tribal and regional barriers. That is why Professor Femi Ajayi in his “Towards Muammar Abu Minyar Al-Gaddafi’s United States of Africa”, described David Mark’s comment as regretful and amateuristic in the use of language. Prof Ajayi urged David Mark to kindly spare some time and attend the use of English word course by calling Gaddafi a mad man. This course according to Ajayi, has been arranged for Mark, but he developed a thick skin towards it. Indeed, the likes of Profs. Wole and Ajayi believe that Senator David Mark’s belt is not tight enough to lead the Senate to come up with laws to avert religious and ethnic challenges facing Nigeria.
However, going by Femi Ajayi’s assertion, even Prof. Wole Soyinka, in one’s view, has no moral justification and educational authourity to teach Senator David Mark how to mind his language. Because, I believe, Prof. Ajayi has definitely forgotten Wole Soyinka’s view about Nigeria’s disintegration along religious and tribal leanings. One therefore has to revisit certain speeches that were done by the Nobel Laureate over Nigeria’s division and succession bid.
Hear him:
“If it is going to cost millions of lives to keep an entity together, I don’t want any part of it.  It is better that you break peacefully”.

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